340 research outputs found

    006.01.001: In Loving Memory of Herbert G. Howse, died December 22, 1918

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    La investigación ‘La Maison suspendue’ del arquitecto Paul D. Nelson (Chicago 1885-Marsella 1979) es aún hoy poco conocida. Sin embargo fue muy difundida a partir de su presentación pública en 1937 y gozó de una notable repercusión, sobre todo en Estados Unidos. Es una de las investigaciones sobre la práctica doméstica contemporánea más radical, original y precursora de algunas otras que vendrían después. Es un trabajo de “anticipación y de exploración”, según su autor: una mezcla sorprendente del funcionalismo más severo y el humanismo más visionario; de la industrialización de la vivienda y la integración del arte y la arquitectura; del espacio “inútil” e indefinido frente a la relación exhaustiva de necesidades domésticas. Este artículo relata por primera vez los incontables intentos de Nelson por divulgar sus conclusiones por un periodo de más de cuarenta años, muestra algunos croquis inéditos y especula qué hubiera sucedido si, como se desprende del contenido de varias cartas de archivo, en los años sesenta se hubiera construido un prototipo a escala real en el jardín del MoMA, Nueva York. El riguroso método de investigación de Nelson quizá pueda arrojar algunas luces sobre el modo de abordar cualquier práctica arquitectónica, también y muy especialmente, la doméstica.The ‘Suspended House’ research conducted by architect Paul D. Nelson (Chicago 1885-Marseille 1979) is scantly known today, despite its widespread dissemination beginning in 1937 and the considerable impact it generated, in the United States especially. One of the most radical and original studies of contemporary residential practice, it was the precursor of several that followed. The author’s acknowledged anticipatory and exploratory intention spawned a surprising blend of severe functionalism and visionary humanism, of industrialised housing and the integration of art and architecture, of ‘useless’, undefined space versus an exhaustive listing of domestic needs. This first-time account of Nelson’s tireless attempts for over 40 years to popularise his conclusions includes a number of previously unpublished sketches and speculates on what might have been if plans (inferred from letters found in the archives) to build a full-scale prototype in the MoMA’s garden in New York in the nineteen sixties had materialised. Nelson’s rigorous research method may provide valuable insights even today on how to broach any, but especially residential, architectural practice

    Pharmacology of intra-articular triamcinolone

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    Introduction: The inflammatory joint diseases of juvenile inflammatory arthritis (JIA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA): and also mild to moderate joint injury, all require a multidisciplinary approach to management. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids have been shown to be a very beneficial adjunctive treatment in the management of the above disorders. It is, therefore, important that clinicians have a good understanding of the clinical actions of intra-articular injections. Objective: This article explores the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical pharmacology of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) in JIA, RA, and OA. Methods: Literature search of TA and TH articles was conducted using key word searches in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases and through references within found articles. Results: TA and TH intra-articular injections have been shown to provide good clinical benefit for up to 6 months and even longer. TH has been shown to decrease in the expression of citrullinated proteins, the monoclonal antibody F95, and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 in RA synovium. TA and TH intra-articular injections have a low side effect profile which is similar to other corticosteroid. They have minimal to no mineralocorticoid adverse effects and facial flushing 2–3 days post injections is the most common side effect recorded, and in almost all cases is no worse than nuisance. Conclusion: TA and TH are useful adjunct therapies in the management of JIA, RA, OA, and mild to moderate joint injury.</p

    Host–guest system of etodolac in native and modified b-cyclodextrins: preparation and physicochemical characterization

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    Etodolac, being a practically insoluble candidate, exhibits certain toxic effects and a limited bioavailability. Upon chronic use, it causes gastro-intestinal injury and increases the risk of ulcer complications. The approach of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug utilizing complexation phenomenon with b-, methyl-b- and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrins, which may enhance the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of etodolac, in an effort to increase oral bioavailability. In certain instances, this approach can be used to increase drug solubility, improve organoleptic properties and maximize the gastrointestinal tolerance by reducing drug irritation after oral administration. Differential UV measurements as well as continuous variation plots revealed the formation of equimolar complex with hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin and 1:2 complexes with b-cyclodextrin and its methyl derivative. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray and FT-IR measurements were applied to prove inclusion complex formation and characterize the complexes. These results lend support to the idea that solubilization of etodolac is mainly related to inclusion complex formation and to a lesser extent to cyclodextrin aggregates. Understanding the factors that influence the performance of etodolac, will allow us to state that molecular encapsulation of the drug and other modifications with appropriate hydroxylation or methylation of parent b-cyclodextrin is able to overcome its problems and facilitate safe and efficient delivery of the drug.Springer Science+Business Medi

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