263 research outputs found

    Diazotrophy drives primary production in the organic-rich shales deposited under a stratified environment during the messinian salinity crisis (Vena Del Gesso, Italy)

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    Density stratification between freshwater and brine is periodically formed during massive evaporation events, which often associates deposition of organic-rich sediments. Here, we investigated phototrophic communities and nitrogen cycle during the deposition of two organic-rich shale beds of gypsum\u2013shale alternation, representing the initial stage of the Messinian salinity crisis (Vena del Gesso, Northern Apennines, Italy). The structural distributions and the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins show a common pattern in the two shales, indicating the predominance of a particular phototrophic community under freshwater\u2013brine stratified conditions. The 3c6\u2030 difference in \u3b413C of total organic carbon between PLG 4 and 5 shales was associated with similar shift in \u3b413C of the porphyrins derived from chlorophyll c, suggesting that the eukaryotic algae producing chlorophyll c were the major constituent of the phototrophic community. Importantly, these porphyrins show \u3b415N values (-7.6\u2013-4.7\u2030) indicative of N2-fixation. We suggest that nitrate-depletion in the photic zone induced the predominance of diazotrophic cyanobacteria, which supplied new nitrogen for the chlorophyll c-producing eukaryotic algae. The large difference in the \u3b413C values of porphyrins and total organic carbon between PLG 4 and 5 shales are interpreted to reflect the depth of the chemocline, which fluctuates in response to changes in the regional evaporation\u2013precipitation balance. Such variation in the chemocline depth may have dynamically changed the mode of the nitrogen cycle (i.e., nitrification\u2013denitrification\u2013N2-fixation coupling vs. phototrophic assimilation of ammonium) in the density-stratified marginal basins during the Messinian salinity crisis

    Changes of optical properties of retroreflector installed in LHD

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    This article describes changes of optical properties of retroreflectors installed on the inner wall of the vacuum vessel of the Large Helical Device. They were made of stainless steel and were used for a CO_2 laser polarimeter. The reflectivity for a CO_2 laser beam dropped up to 40% after the start of glow discharge cleanings and main plasma experiments. Then it decreased gradually. The reflectivity in a wavelength range shorter than 10 ?m decreased significantly through one experimental campaign (about 4 months). On the other hand the reflectivity in a wavelength range longer than 50 ?m was larger than 70%. Decrease in the reflectivity in the central region of mirrors was more significant (the reflectivity for visible beams became almost zero) than that in the edge. The distribution of the reflectivity along the radial direction is expected to be related to the shape of the retroreflector. The parallelism of the reflected beam to an incident one also deteriorated. The changes in the polarization angle and in the ellipticity of reflected light polarization were not observed from the visible to the far infrared range
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