69,574 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Understanding arsenic toxicity: Implications for environmental exposure and human health

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    Arsenic is a trace element and a metalloid which is prominently known as an environmental hazard. At present, rising health apprehensions are linked to emanating from a wide array of industrial, chemical, residential, agricultural, and technological sources, leading to extensive pollution of water, soil, and air ecosystems including flora, fauna and humans. It poses significant harm to biological organisms upon acute and chronic exposure. In this review, we delve into the reported experimental data that elaborates on arsenic as a toxicant, with particular emphasis on its occurrence, metabolism and diverse molecular mechanisms involved. It also includes the major molecular mechanisms leading to systemic toxicity with special emphasis on shedding light on the intricate ways it disrupts the nervous system

    Janus Micromotors for Photophoretic Motion and Photon Upconversion Applications Using a Single Near-Infrared Wavelength

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    External stimuli can trigger changes in temperature, concentration, and momentum between micromotors and the medium, causing their propulsion and enabling them to perform different tasks with improved kinetic efficiencies. Light-activated micromotors are attractive systems that achieve improved motion and have the potential for high spatiotemporal control. Photophoretic swarming motion represents an attractive means to induce micromotor movement through the generation of temperature gradients in the medium, enabling the micromotors to move from cold to hot regions. The micromotors studied herein are assembled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+/NaGdF4:Yb3+ and LiYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ upconverting nanoparticles. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were localized to one hemisphere to produce a Janus architecture that facilitates improved upconversion luminescence with the upconverting nanoparticles distributed throughout. Under 976 nm excitation, Fe3O4 nanoparticles generate the temperature gradient, while the upconverting nanoparticles produce visible light that is used for micromotor motion tracking and triggering of reactive oxygen species generation. As such, the motion and application of the micromotors are achieved using a single excitation wavelength. To demonstrate the practicality of this system, curcumin was adsorbed to the micromotor surface and degradation of Rhodamine B was achieved with kinetic rates that were over twice as fast as the static micromotors. The upconversion luminescence was also used to track the motion of the micromotors from a single image frame, providing a convenient means to understand the trajectory of these systems. Together, this system provides a versatile approach to achieving light-driven motion while taking advantage of the potential applications of upconversion luminescence such as tracking and detection, sensing, nanothermometry, particle velocimetry, photodynamic therapy, and pollutant degradation