156 research outputs found

    Small mitochondrial ARF (smARF) is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, induces cell death, and activates p53 in mouse fibroblasts

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    AbstractThe ARF transcript produces two proteins, the full-length ARF, p19ARF, and a short mitochondrial version, smARF. To explore the functional difference between the two, we generated GFP-fused expression vectors for each protein and introduced them into NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts, which sustains a global deletion in the INK4a locus but contains a functional p53 gene. GFP-p19ARF was located within the nucleolus as previously reported, whereas GFP-smARF was detected mainly in the nucleoplasm. GFP-smARF induced cell death although to a slightly lesser extent than p19ARF. GFP-smARF stabilized p53 thereby inducing expression of the target genes, MDM2 and p21. We suggest that smARF has functions other than mitochondria-mediated autophagy, and induces p53 expression and cell death via a novel mechanism

    複数異種移植マウスモデルにおけるPentagamavunone-1の膵臓癌に対する単剤および併用療法としての前臨床評価

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    We previously reported that pentagamavunone-1 (PGV-1) effectively inhibited cell proliferation in many types of human tumors, including pancreatic cancer, by inducing M phase (prometaphase) arrest, senescence, and apoptosis with few side effects. However, a detailed evaluation of the effects of PGV-1 on pancreatic cancer cells in an in vivo setting has not yet been conducted. The present study investigated the potential efficacy of PGV-1 as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pancreatic cancer using multiple xenograft mouse assays. A cell-line derived xenograft model (CDX-M) with pancreatic cancer cell line and a patient-derived xenograft mouse model (PDX-M) using resected pancreatic cancer samples without neoadjuvant chemotherapy were established in both heterotopic and orthotopic manners. PGV-1 effectively suppressed tumor formation at the heterotopic and orthotopic sites in CDX-M than in untreated mice. Combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation than monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine when administered after tumor formation. Monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine less effectively suppressed tumor formation in PDX-M than in CDX-M, whereas combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation. PGV-1 as monotherapy and combination therapy with gemcitabine effectively inhibited tumor formation and has potential as an anticancer candidate for pancreatic cancer.権利情報:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

    CSN5/Jab1 controls multiple events in the mammalian cell cycle

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    AbstractThe COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex is critical for mammalian cell proliferation and survival, but it is not known how the CSN affects the cell cycle. In this study, MEFs lacking CSN5/Jab1 were generated using a CRE-flox system. MEFs ceased to proliferate upon elimination of CSN5/Jab1. Rescue experiments indicated that the JAMM domain of CSN5/Jab1 was essential. CSN5/Jab1-elimination enhanced the neddylation of cullins 1 and 4 and altered the expression of many factors including cyclin E and p53. CSN5/Jab1-elimination inhibited progression of the cell cycle at multiple points, seemed to initiate p53-independent senescence and increased the ploidy of cells. Thus, CSN5/Jab1 controls different events of the cell cycle, preventing senescence and endocycle as well as the proper progression of the somatic cell cycle.Structured summaryMINT-8046253: Csn1 (uniprotkb:Q99LD4) physically interacts (MI:0914) with Csn5 (uniprotkb:O35864), Csn8 (uniprotkb:Q8VBV7), Csn3 (uniprotkb:O88543), Csn7b (uniprotkb:Q8BV13) and Csn6 (uniprotkb:O88545) by anti bait coimmunoprecipitation (MI:0006

    Shrinking a large dataset to identify variables associated with increased risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Western Kenya

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    Large datasets are often not amenable to analysis using traditional single-step approaches. Here, our general objective was to apply imputation techniques, principal component analysis (PCA), elastic net and generalized linear models to a large dataset in a systematic approach to extract the most meaningful predictors for a health outcome. We extracted predictors for Plasmodium falciparum infection, from a large covariate dataset while facing limited numbers of observations, using data from the People, Animals, and their Zoonoses (PAZ) project to demonstrate these techniques: data collected from 415 homesteads in western Kenya, contained over 1500 variables that describe the health, environment, and social factors of the humans, livestock, and the homesteads in which they reside. The wide, sparse dataset was simplified to 42 predictors of P. falciparum malaria infection and wealth rankings were produced for all homesteads. The 42 predictors make biological sense and are supported by previous studies. This systematic data-mining approach we used would make many large datasets more manageable and informative for decision-making processes and health policy prioritization

    Implicating genes, pleiotropy, and sexual dimorphism at blood lipid loci through multi-ancestry meta-analysis

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).Background: Genetic variants within nearly 1000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery. Results: To expand our understanding of the underlying biological pathways and mechanisms controlling blood lipid levels, we leverage a large multi-ancestry meta-analysis (N = 1,654,960) of blood lipids to prioritize putative causal genes for 2286 lipid associations using six gene prediction approaches. Using phenome-wide association (PheWAS) scans, we identify relationships of genetically predicted lipid levels to other diseases and conditions. We confirm known pleiotropic associations with cardiovascular phenotypes and determine novel associations, notably with cholelithiasis risk. We perform sex-stratified GWAS meta-analysis of lipid levels and show that 3–5% of autosomal lipid-associated loci demonstrate sex-biased effects. Finally, we report 21 novel lipid loci identified on the X chromosome. Many of the sex-biased autosomal and X chromosome lipid loci show pleiotropic associations with sex hormones, emphasizing the role of hormone regulation in lipid metabolism. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms through which associated variants lead to altered lipid levels and potentially cardiovascular disease risk.Peer reviewe

    Implicating genes, pleiotropy, and sexual dimorphism at blood lipid loci through multi-ancestry meta-analysis

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    Funding GMP, PN, and CW are supported by NHLBI R01HL127564. GMP and PN are supported by R01HL142711. AG acknowledge support from the Wellcome Trust (201543/B/16/Z), European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013 under grant agreement no. HEALTH-F2-2013–601456 (CVGenes@Target) & the TriPartite Immunometabolism Consortium [TrIC]-Novo Nordisk Foundation’s Grant number NNF15CC0018486. JMM is supported by American Diabetes Association Innovative and Clinical Translational Award 1–19-ICTS-068. SR was supported by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics (Grant No 312062), the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and University of Helsinki HiLIFE Fellow and Grand Challenge grants. EW was supported by the Finnish innovation fund Sitra (EW) and Finska Läkaresällskapet. CNS was supported by American Heart Association Postdoctoral Fellowships 15POST24470131 and 17POST33650016. Charles N Rotimi is supported by Z01HG200362. Zhe Wang, Michael H Preuss, and Ruth JF Loos are supported by R01HL142302. NJT is a Wellcome Trust Investigator (202802/Z/16/Z), is the PI of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (MRC & WT 217065/Z/19/Z), is supported by the University of Bristol NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (BRC-1215–2001) and the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_00011), and works within the CRUK Integrative Cancer Epidemiology Programme (C18281/A19169). Ruth E Mitchell is a member of the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol funded by the MRC (MC_UU_00011/1). Simon Haworth is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Academic Clinical Fellowship. Paul S. de Vries was supported by American Heart Association grant number 18CDA34110116. Julia Ramierz acknowledges support by the People Programme of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme grant n° 608765 and Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant n° 786833. Maria Sabater-Lleal is supported by a Miguel Servet contract from the ISCIII Spanish Health Institute (CP17/00142) and co-financed by the European Social Fund. Jian Yang is funded by the Westlake Education Foundation. Olga Giannakopoulou has received funding from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) (FS/14/66/3129). CHARGE Consortium cohorts were supported by R01HL105756. Study-specific acknowledgements are available in the Additional file 32: Supplementary Note. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Implicating genes, pleiotropy, and sexual dimorphism at blood lipid loci through multi-ancestry meta-analysis

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    Abstract Background Genetic variants within nearly 1000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery. Results To expand our understanding of the underlying biological pathways and mechanisms controlling blood lipid levels, we leverage a large multi-ancestry meta-analysis (N = 1,654,960) of blood lipids to prioritize putative causal genes for 2286 lipid associations using six gene prediction approaches. Using phenome-wide association (PheWAS) scans, we identify relationships of genetically predicted lipid levels to other diseases and conditions. We confirm known pleiotropic associations with cardiovascular phenotypes and determine novel associations, notably with cholelithiasis risk. We perform sex-stratified GWAS meta-analysis of lipid levels and show that 3–5% of autosomal lipid-associated loci demonstrate sex-biased effects. Finally, we report 21 novel lipid loci identified on the X chromosome. Many of the sex-biased autosomal and X chromosome lipid loci show pleiotropic associations with sex hormones, emphasizing the role of hormone regulation in lipid metabolism. Conclusions Taken together, our findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms through which associated variants lead to altered lipid levels and potentially cardiovascular disease risk

    Genetic drivers of heterogeneity in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology

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    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease that develops through diverse pathophysiological processes1,2 and molecular mechanisms that are often specific to cell type3,4. Here, to characterize the genetic contribution to these processes across ancestry groups, we aggregate genome-wide association study data from 2,535,601 individuals (39.7% not of European ancestry), including 428,452 cases of T2D. We identify 1,289 independent association signals at genome-wide significance (P &lt; 5 × 10-8) that map to 611 loci, of which 145 loci are, to our knowledge, previously unreported. We define eight non-overlapping clusters of T2D signals that are characterized by distinct profiles of cardiometabolic trait associations. These clusters are differentially enriched for cell-type-specific regions of open chromatin, including pancreatic islets, adipocytes, endothelial cells and enteroendocrine cells. We build cluster-specific partitioned polygenic scores5 in a further 279,552 individuals of diverse ancestry, including 30,288 cases of T2D, and test their association with T2D-related vascular outcomes. Cluster-specific partitioned polygenic scores are associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease and end-stage diabetic nephropathy across ancestry groups, highlighting the importance of obesity-related processes in the development of vascular outcomes. Our findings show the value of integrating multi-ancestry genome-wide association study data with single-cell epigenomics to disentangle the aetiological heterogeneity that drives the development and progression of T2D. This might offer a route to optimize global access to genetically informed diabetes care.</p

    Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg->H->W+W- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models