75 research outputs found

    Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Lung Transplantation: A Review

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    There has been an increase in lung transplantation in the USA. Lung allocation is guided by the lung allocation score (LAS), which takes into account one measure of exercise capacity, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). There is a paucity of data regarding the role and value of cardiopulmonary stress test (CPET) in the evaluation of lung transplant recipients while on the transplant waiting list and after lung transplantation. While clearly there is a need for further prospective investigation, the available literature strongly suggests a potential role for CPET in the setting of lung transplant

    Measuring “waiting” impulsivity in substance addictions and binge eating disorder in a novel analogue of rodent serial reaction time task

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    Background Premature responding is a form of motor impulsivity that preclinical evidence has shown to predict compulsive drug seeking but has not yet been studied in humans. We developed a novel translation of the task, based on the rodent 5-choice serial reaction time task, testing premature responding in disorders of drug and natural food rewards. Methods Abstinent alcohol- (n = 30) and methamphetamine-dependent (n = 23) subjects, recreational cannabis users (n = 30), and obese subjects with (n = 30) and without (n = 30) binge eating disorder (BED) were compared with matched healthy volunteers and tested on the premature responding task. Results Compared with healthy volunteers, alcohol- and methamphetamine-dependent subjects and cannabis users showed greater premature responding with no differences observed in obese subjects with or without BED. Current smokers exhibited greater premature responding versus ex-smokers and nonsmokers. Alcohol-dependent subjects also had lower motivation for explicit monetary incentives. A Motivation Index correlated negatively with alcohol use and binge eating severity. Conclusions Premature responding on a novel translation of a serial reaction time task was more evident in substance use disorders but not in obese subjects with or without BED. Lower motivation for monetary incentives linked alcohol use and binge eating severity. Our findings add to understanding the relationship between drug and natural food rewards

    A novel rapamycin analog is highly selective for mTORC1 in vivo.

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    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), extends lifespan and shows strong potential for the treatment of age-related diseases. However, rapamycin exerts metabolic and immunological side effects mediated by off-target inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTOR complex 2. Here, we report the identification of DL001, a FKBP12-dependent rapamycin analog 40x more selective for mTORC1 than rapamycin. DL001 inhibits mTORC1 in cell culture lines and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice, in which DL001 inhibits mTORC1 signaling without impairing glucose homeostasis and with substantially reduced or no side effects on lipid metabolism and the immune system. In cells, DL001 efficiently represses elevated mTORC1 activity and restores normal gene expression to cells lacking a functional tuberous sclerosis complex. Our results demonstrate that highly selective pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 can be achieved in vivo, and that selective inhibition of mTORC1 significantly reduces the side effects associated with conventional rapalogs

    Social and Health Correlates of Sleep Duration in a US Hispanic Population: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

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    To define the prevalence of poor sleep patterns in the US Hispanic/Latino population, identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of short and long sleep duration, and the association between sleep and cardiometabolic outcomes

    Self-antigen–specific CD8+ T cell precursor frequency determines the quality of the antitumor immune response

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    A primary goal of cancer immunotherapy is to improve the naturally occurring, but weak, immune response to tumors. Ineffective responses to cancer vaccines may be caused, in part, by low numbers of self-reactive lymphocytes surviving negative selection. Here, we estimated the frequency of CD8+ T cells recognizing a self-antigen to be <0.0001% (∼1 in 1 million CD8+ T cells), which is so low as to preclude a strong immune response in some mice. Supplementing this repertoire with naive antigen-specific cells increased vaccine-elicited tumor immunity and autoimmunity, but a threshold was reached whereby the transfer of increased numbers of antigen-specific cells impaired functional benefit, most likely because of intraclonal competition in the irradiated host. We show that cells primed at precursor frequencies below this competitive threshold proliferate more, acquire polyfunctionality, and eradicate tumors more effectively. This work demonstrates the functional relevance of CD8+ T cell precursor frequency to tumor immunity and autoimmunity. Transferring optimized numbers of naive tumor-specific T cells, followed by in vivo activation, is a new approach that can be applied to human cancer immunotherapy. Further, precursor frequency as an isolated variable can be exploited to augment efficacy of clinical vaccine strategies designed to activate any antigen-specific CD8+ T cells

    Reproducibility of a Standardized Actigraphy Scoring Algorithm for Sleep in a US Hispanic/Latino Population

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    While actigraphy is considered objective, the process of setting rest intervals to calculate sleep variables is subjective. We sought to evaluate the reproducibility of actigraphy-derived measures of sleep using a standardized algorithm for setting rest intervals

    Parental Factors Associated With the Decision to Participate in a Neonatal Clinical Trial

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    Importance: It remains poorly understood how parents decide whether to enroll a child in a neonatal clinical trial. This is particularly true for parents from racial or ethnic minority populations. Understanding factors associated with enrollment decisions may improve recruitment processes for families, increase enrollment rates, and decrease disparities in research participation. Objective: To assess differences in parental factors between parents who enrolled their infant and those who declined enrollment for a neonatal randomized clinical trial. Design, setting, and participants: This survey study conducted from July 2017 to October 2019 in 12 US level 3 and 4 neonatal intensive care units included parents of infants who enrolled in the High-dose Erythropoietin for Asphyxia and Encephalopathy (HEAL) trial or who were eligible but declined enrollment. Data were analyzed October 2019 through July 2020. Exposure: Parental choice of enrollment in neonatal clinical trial. Main outcomes and measures: Percentages and odds ratios (ORs) of parent participation as categorized by demographic characteristics, self-assessment of child's medical condition, study comprehension, and trust in medical researchers. Survey questions were based on the hypothesis that parents who enrolled their infant in HEAL differ from those who declined enrollment across 4 categories: (1) infant characteristics and parental demographic characteristics, (2) perception of infant's illness, (3) study comprehension, and (4) trust in clinicians and researchers. Results: Of a total 387 eligible parents, 269 (69.5%) completed the survey and were included in analysis. This included 183 of 242 (75.6%) of HEAL-enrolled and 86 of 145 (59.3%) of HEAL-declined parents. Parents who enrolled their infant had lower rates of Medicaid participation (74 [41.1%] vs 47 [55.3%]; P = .04) and higher rates of annual income greater than $55 000 (94 [52.8%] vs 30 [37.5%]; P = .03) compared with those who declined. Black parents had lower enrollment rates compared with White parents (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17-0.73). Parents who reported their infant's medical condition as more serious had higher enrollment rates (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.0-16.3). Parents who enrolled their infant reported higher trust in medical researchers compared with parents who declined (mean [SD] difference, 5.3 [0.3-10.3]). There was no association between study comprehension and enrollment. Conclusions and relevance: In this study, the following factors were associated with neonatal clinical trial enrollment: demographic characteristics (ie, race/ethnicity, Medicaid status, and reported income), perception of illness, and trust in medical researchers. Future work to confirm these findings and explore the reasons behind them may lead to strategies for better engaging underrepresented groups in neonatal clinical research to reduce enrollment disparities

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead
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