44 research outputs found

    Epsilon iron oxide: origin of the high coercivity stable low Curie temperature magnetic phase found in heated archeological materials

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    The identification of epsilon iron oxide (…õ-Fe2O3) as the low Curie temperature high coercivity stable phase (HCSLT) carrying the remanence in heated archeological samples has been achieved in samples from two archeological sites that exhibited the clearest evidence of the presence of the HCSLT. This uncommon iron oxide has been detected by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS) and characterized by rock magnetic measurements. Large numbers of …õ-Fe2O3 microaggregates (in CO) or isolated clusters (in HEL) could be recognized, distributed over the whole sample, and embedded within the ceramic matrix, along with hematite and pseudobrookite and with minor amounts of anatase, rutile, and maghemite. Curie temperature estimates of around 170¬įC for CO and 190¬įC for HEL are lower than for pure, synthetic …õ-Fe2O3 (227¬įC). This, together with structural differences between the Raman spectra of the archeologically derived and synthetic samples, is likely due to Ti substitution in the …õ-Fe2O3 crystal lattice. The ő≥-Fe2O3-…õ-Fe2O3-őĪ-Fe2O3 transformation series has been recognized in heated archeological samples, which may have implications in terms of their thermal history and in the factors that govern the formation of …õ-Fe2O3

    Extravasation of leukocytes in comparison to tumor cells

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    The multi-step process of the emigration of cells from the blood stream through the vascular endothelium into the tissue has been termed extravasation. The extravasation of leukocytes is fairly well characterized down to the molecular level, and has been reviewed in several aspects. Comparatively little is known about the extravasation of tumor cells, which is part of the hematogenic metastasis formation. Although the steps of the process are basically the same in leukocytes and tumor cells, i.e. rolling, adhesion, transmigration (diapedesis), the molecules that are involved are different. A further important difference is that leukocyte interaction with the endothelium changes the endothelial integrity only temporarily, whereas tumor cell interaction leads to an irreversible damage of the endothelial architecture. Moreover, tumor cells utilize leukocytes for their extravasation as linkers to the endothelium. Thus, metastasis formation is indirectly susceptible to localization signals that are literally specific for the immune system. We herein compare the extravasation of leukocytes and tumor cells with regard to the involved receptors and the localization signals that direct the cells to certain organs and sites of the body

    Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children

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    Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children

    Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

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    The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional) regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3) where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles

    Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

    No full text
    The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional) regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3) where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles
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