368 research outputs found

    Loss of PWT7, Located on a Supernumerary Chromosome, Is Associated with Parasitic Specialization of Pyricularia oryzae on Wheat

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    Pyricularia oryzae, a blast fungus of gramineous plants, is composed of various host genus–specific pathotypes. The avirulence of an Avena isolate on wheat is conditioned by PWT3 and PWT4. We isolated the third avirulence gene from the Avena isolate and designated it as PWT7. PWT7 was effective as an avirulence gene only at the seedling stage or on leaves. PWT7 homologs were widely distributed in a subpopulation of the Eleusine pathotype and the Lolium pathotype but completely absent in the Triticum pathotype (the wheat blast fungus). The PWT7 homolog found in the Eleusine pathotype was one of the five genes involved in its avirulence on wheat. A comparative analysis of distribution of PWT7 and the other two genes previously identified in the Eleusine pathotype suggested that, in the course of parasitic specialization toward the wheat blast fungus, a common ancestor of the Eleusine, Lolium, Avena, and Triticum pathotypes first lost PWT6, secondly PWT7, and, finally, the function of PWT3. PWT7 or its homologs were located on core chromosomes in Setaria and Eleusine isolates but on supernumerary chromosomes in Lolium and Avena isolates. This is an example of interchromosomal translocations of effector genes between core and supernumerary chromosomes. [Graphic: see text] Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license

    ATP6AP2 is robustly expressed in pancreatic β cells and neuroendocrine tumors, and plays a role in maintaining cellular viability

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    Abstract ATP6AP2, also known as (pro)renin receptor, has been shown to be expressed in several tissues including pancreatic β cells. Whereas ATP6AP2 plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β cells, the expression profiles and roles of ATP6AP2 in human pancreatic endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumor cells remain unclear. Here in this study, we investigated the expression profiles of ATP6AP2 in pancreatic endocrine cells, and found that ATP6AP2 is robustly expressed in pancreatic insulinoma cells as well as in normal β cells. Although ATP6AP2 was also expressed in low-grade neuroendocrine tumors, it was not or faintly detected in intermediate- and high-grade neuroendocrine tumors. Knockdown experiments of the Atp6ap2 gene in rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells demonstrated decreased cell viability accompanied by a significant increase in apoptotic cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATP6AP2 plays a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in insulinoma cells, which could lead to possible therapeutic approaches for endocrine tumors

    CKD, Brain Atrophy, and White Matter Lesion Volume: The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and DementiaPlain-Language summary

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    Rationale &amp; Objective: Chronic kidney disease, defined by albuminuria and/or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), has been reported to be associated with brain atrophy and/or higher white matter lesion volume (WMLV), but there are few large-scale population-based studies assessing this issue. This study aimed to examine the associations between the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR levels and brain atrophy and WMLV in a large-scale community-dwelling older population of Japanese. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting &amp; Participants: A total of 8,630 dementia-free community-dwelling Japanese aged greater than or equal to 65 years underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and screening examination of health status in 2016-2018. Exposures: UACR and eGFR levels. Outcomes: The total brain volume (TBV)-to-intracranial volume (ICV) ratio (TBV/ICV), the regional brain volume-to-TBV ratio, and the WMLV-to-ICV ratio (WMLV/ICV). Analytical Approach: The associations of UACR and eGFR levels with the TBV/ICV, the regional brain volume-to-TBV ratio, and the WMLV/ICV were assessed by using an analysis of covariance. Results: Higher UACR levels were significantly associated with lower TBV/ICV and higher geometric mean values of the WMLV/ICV (P for trend = 0.009 and <0.001, respectively). Lower eGFR levels were significantly associated with lower TBV/ICV, but not clearly associated with WMLV/ICV. In addition, higher UACR levels, but not lower eGFR, were significantly associated with lower temporal cortex volume-to-TBV ratio and lower hippocampal volume-to-TBV ratio. Limitations: Cross-sectional study, misclassification of UACR or eGFR levels, generalizability to other ethnicities and younger populations, and residual confounding factors. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that higher UACR was associated with brain atrophy, especially in the temporal cortex and hippocampus, and with increased WMLV. These findings suggest that chronic kidney disease is involved in the progression of morphologic brain changes associated with cognitive impairment

    Atrial fibrillation detected before or after stroke: role of anticoagulation

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    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) known before ischemic stroke (KAF) has been postulated to be an independent category with a recurrence risk higher than that of AF detected after stroke (AFDAS). However, it is unknown whether this risk difference is confounded by pre-existing anticoagulation, which is most common in KAF and also indicates a high ischemic stroke recurrence risk. Methods: Individual patient data analysis from 5 prospective cohorts of anticoagulated patients following AF-associated ischemic stroke. We compared the primary (ischemic stroke recurrence) and secondary outcome (all-cause death) among patients with AFDAS versus KAF and among anticoagulation-naïve versus previously anticoagulated patients using multivariable Cox, Fine-Gray models and goodness-of-fit statistics to investigate the relative independent prognostic importance of AF-category and pre-existing anticoagulation. Results: Of 4,357 patients, 1,889(43%) had AFDAS and 2,468(57%) had KAF, while 3,105(71%) were anticoagulation-naïve before stroke and 1,252(29%) were previously anticoagulated. During 6,071 patient-years of follow-up we observed 244 recurrent strokes and 661 deaths. Only pre-existing anticoagulation (but not KAF) was independently associated with a higher hazard for stroke recurrence in both Cox and Fine-Gray models. Models incorporating pre-existing anticoagulation showed better fit than those with AF-category; adding AF-category did not result in better model fit. Neither pre-existing anticoagulation nor KAF were independently associated with death. Conclusion: Our findings challenge the notion that KAF and AFDAS are clinically relevant and distinct prognostic entities. Instead of attributing an independently high stroke recurrence risk to KAF, future research should focus on the causes of stroke despite anticoagulation to develop improved preventive treatments

    Association of IL-4 with pachychoroid neovasculopathy

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    Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the inflammatory cytokines that were associated with pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV). Seventy-five eyes of 75 patients with PNV, 145 eyes of 145 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration without pachyvessels, and 150 eyes of 150 normal subjects were examined for the levels of intraocular cytokines. In eyes with PNV, the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and VEGF were significantly higher than that of the controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the highest association with the pachyvessels was found for IL-4, IL-2, and IL-1α. In eyes with PNV, the levels of IL-4, IL-2, IL-5, IL-13, IL-1α, and IL-1β were significantly higher in eyes with both increased choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel diameter. The strongest correlation with the choroidal thickness and vessel diameter was observed for IL-4. In PNV eyes with polypoidal lesions, the levels of IL-4, IL-17, and TNFβ were significantly correlated with the number of polypoidal lesions. Of these cytokines, IL-4 was especially associated with the thickness of the choroidal vessels and the formation of polypoidal lesions. We conclude that IL-4 is most likely involved in establishing the clinical characteristics of PNV and polypoidal vascular remodeling

    Risk assessment of assisted reproductive technology and parental age at childbirth for the development of uniparental disomy-mediated imprinting disorders caused by aneuploid gametes

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    Abstract Background Our previous study suggested that assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be a possible risk factor for the development of epimutation-mediated imprinting disorders (epi-IDs) for mothers aged ≥ 30 years. However, whether ART or advanced parental age facilitates the development of uniparental disomy-mediated IDs (UPD-IDs) has not yet been investigated. Results We enrolled 130 patients with aneuploid UPD-IDs including various IDs confirmed by molecular studies and obtained ART data of the general population and patients with epi-IDs from a robust nationwide database and our previous report, respectively. We compared the proportion of ART-conceived livebirths and maternal childbearing age between patients with UPD-IDs and the general population or patients with epi-IDs. The proportion of ART-conceived livebirths in patients with aneuploid UPD-IDs was consistent with that in the general population of maternal age ≥ 30 years and was lower than that in the patients with epi-IDs, although there was no significant difference. The maternal childbearing age of patients with aneuploid UPD-IDs was skewed to the increased ages with several cases exceeding the 97.5th percentile of maternal childbearing age of the general population and significantly higher than that of patients with epi-IDs (P < 0.001). In addition, we compared the proportion of ART-conceived livebirths and parental age at childbirth between patients with UPD-IDs caused by aneuploid oocytes (oUPD-IDs) and that by aneuploid sperm (sUPD-IDs). Almost all ART-conceived livebirths were identified in patients with oUPD-IDs, and both maternal age and paternal age at childbirth were significantly higher in patients with oUPD-IDs than in patients with sUPD-IDs. Because maternal age and paternal age were strongly correlated (r s  = 0.637, P < 0.001), higher paternal age in oUPD-IDs was explained by the higher maternal age in this group. Conclusions Different from the case of epi-IDs, ART itself is not likely to facilitate the development of aneuploid UPD-IDs. We demonstrated that advanced maternal age can be a risk factor for the development of aneuploid UPD-IDs, particularly oUPD-IDs

    Systemic Administration of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Induces Glial Activation and Depressive-Like Behavior in Rats

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    Background: Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders in adults. Although clinical studies have suggested a causal relationship between periodontitis and major depression (MD), the biological mechanisms by which periodontitis instigates MD are unknown. We investigated whether a systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a major Gram-negative pathogen of periodontitis, causes depressive-like behavior and glial activation in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are MD-related brain regions. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a behavioral test group and an immunohistochemistry group. The rats in each group were further assigned to the sham injection (saline) and Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) injection protocols. The rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline or Pg-LPS with gradually increasing doses (day 1: 0.5, day 2: 0.5, day 3: 0.75, day 4: 0.75, day 5: 1.0, day 6: 1.0, and day 7: 1.0 mg/kg of body weight) for seven consecutive days. After the systemic administration, the behavior test group underwent the forced swimming test (FST) and Y-maze test. For the immunohistochemistry group, we quantified the immunoreactivity for microglial Iba-1 (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1) and astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus [DG], cornu ammonis [CA1 and CA3]) and PFC (prelimbic [PrL] and the infralimbic [IL]) areas. Results: The FST immobility time in the Pg-LPS group was significantly longer than that in the sham group. In the Y-maze test, a significant decline in spontaneous alternation behavior was observed in the Pg-LPS group compared to the sham group. The peripheral administration of Pg-LPS significantly increased the immunoreactivity for Iba-1 in the CA3 and PrL. Pg-LPS injection significantly increased the immunoreactivity for GFAP in the DG, CA1, and CA3. Conclusions: The major result of this study is that a repeated systemic administration of Pg-LPS caused depressive-like behavior and both microglial and astrocytic activation in rats. This finding may comprise biological evidence of a causal relationship between periodontitis and MD

    Atrial fibrillation detected before or after stroke: role of anticoagulation

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    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) known before ischemic stroke (KAF) has been postulated to be an independent category with a recurrence risk higher than that of AF detected after stroke (AFDAS). However, it is unknown whether this risk difference is confounded by pre-existing anticoagulation, which is most common in KAF and also indicates a high ischemic stroke recurrence risk. METHODS: Individual patient data analysis from 5 prospective cohorts of anticoagulated patients following AF-associated ischemic stroke. We compared the primary (ischemic stroke recurrence) and secondary outcome (all-cause death) among patients with AFDAS versus KAF and among anticoagulation-naïve versus previously anticoagulated patients using multivariable Cox, Fine-Gray models and goodness-of-fit statistics to investigate the relative independent prognostic importance of AF-category and pre-existing anticoagulation. RESULTS: Of 4,357 patients, 1,889(43%) had AFDAS and 2,468(57%) had KAF, while 3,105(71%) were anticoagulation-naïve before stroke and 1,252(29%) were previously anticoagulated. During 6,071 patient-years of follow-up we observed 244 recurrent strokes and 661 deaths. Only pre-existing anticoagulation (but not KAF) was independently associated with a higher hazard for stroke recurrence in both Cox and Fine-Gray models. Models incorporating pre-existing anticoagulation showed better fit than those with AF-category; adding AF-category did not result in better model fit. Neither pre-existing anticoagulation nor KAF were independently associated with death. CONCLUSION: Our findings challenge the notion that KAF and AFDAS are clinically relevant and distinct prognostic entities. Instead of attributing an independently high stroke recurrence risk to KAF, future research should focus on the causes of stroke despite anticoagulation to develop improved preventive treatments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    Involvement of the L-DOPA receptor GPR143 in acute and chronic actions of methylphenidate

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    Methylphenidate (MPH) and methamphetamine (METH) are the current treatments of choice for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We previously reported that METH induces the release of dopamine (DA) and of the neurotransmitter candidate L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). In contrast, we here found that MPH increased the DA release while it did not affect the L-DOPA release from the dorsolateral striatum. Nevertheless, MPH-induced hyperlocomotion was reduced in Gpr143 (L-DOPA receptor) gene-deficient (Gpr143−/y) mice. The rewarding effect and increased c-fos expression induced by MPH were also attenuated in Gpr143−/y mice. Together, these findings suggest that GPR143 is involved in the acute and chronic actions of MPH

    Carboplatin-Paclitaxel Chemoradiotherapy With 66 Gy For Elderly Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

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    Background/ Aim: The common radiation dose administered with chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 60 Gy. We aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of carboplatin-paclitaxel chemoradiotherapy with 66 Gy for elderly NSCLC patients. Patients and Methods: Forty-five patients with stage III NSCLC were enrolled from 2011 to 2014 at our hospital. They were divided into three groups according to their status and underwent different treatments. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) were determined. Toxicity was evaluated with NCI-CTCAE ver. 4.0; intergroup differences were analysed statistically. Results: The group receiving carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy with 66 Gy showed the longest median OS (40.4 months), PFS (17.9 months), and LC (44.3 months). Toxicity was acceptable in all groups. Conclusion: For elderly patients with stage III NSCLC, carboplatin-paclitaxel chemoradiotherapy with 66 Gy is suggested to be feasible and effective
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