175 research outputs found

    A training pipeline of an arrhythmia classifier for atrial fibrillation detection using Photoplethysmography signal

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    Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal is potentially suitable in atrial fibrillation (AF) detection for its convenience in use and similarity in physiological origin to electrocardiogram (ECG). There are a few preceding studies that have shown the possibility of using the peak-to-peak interval of the PPG signal (PPIp) in AF detection. However, as a generalized model, the accuracy of an AF detector should be pursued on the one hand; on the other hand, its generalizability should be paid attention to in view of the individual differences in PPG manifestation of even the same arrhythmia and the existence of sub-types. Moreover, a binary classifier for atrial fibrillation and normal sinus rhythm is not convincing enough for the similarity between AF and ectopic beats. In this study, we project the atrial fibrillation detection as a multiple-class classification and try to propose a training pipeline that is advantageous both to the accuracy and generalizability of the classifier by designing and determining the configurable options of the pipeline, in terms of input format, deep learning model (with hyperparameter optimization), and scheme of transfer learning. With a rigorous comparison of the possible combinations of the configurable components in the pipeline, we confirmed that first-order difference of heartbeat sequence as the input format, a 2-layer CNN-1-layer Transformer hybridR model as the learning model and the whole model fine-tuning as the implementing scheme of transfer learning is the best combination for the pipeline (F1 value: 0.80, overall accuracy: 0.87)R

    Deep Learning Approach for Predicting the Therapeutic Usages of Unani Formulas towards Finding Essential Compounds

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    The use of herbal medicines in recent decades has increased because their side effects are considered lower than conventional medicine. Unani herbal medicines are often used in Southern Asia. These herbal medicines are usually composed of several types of medicinal plants to treat various diseases. Research on herbal medicine usually focuses on insight into the composition of plants used as ingredients. However, in the present study, we extended to the level of metabolites that exist in the medicinal plants. This study aimed to develop a predictive model of the Unani therapeutic usage based on its constituent metabolites using deep learning and data-intensive science approaches. Furthermore, the best prediction model was then utilized to extract important metabolites for each therapeutic usage of Unani. In this study, it was observed that the deep neural network approach provided a much better prediction model than other algorithms including random forest and support vector machine. Moreover, according to the best prediction model using the deep neural network, we identified 118 important metabolites for nine therapeutic usages of Unani

    On QSAR-based cardiotoxicity modeling with the expressiveness-enhanced graph learning model and dual-threshold scheme

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    Introduction: Given the direct association with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiotoxicity is a major concern in drug design. In the past decades, computational models based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship have been proposed to screen out cardiotoxic compounds and have shown promising results. The combination of molecular fingerprint and the machine learning model shows stable performance for a wide spectrum of problems; however, not long after the advent of the graph neural network (GNN) deep learning model and its variant (e.g., graph transformer), it has become the principal way of quantitative structure-activity relationship-based modeling for its high flexibility in feature extraction and decision rule generation. Despite all these progresses, the expressiveness (the ability of a program to identify non-isomorphic graph structures) of the GNN model is bounded by the WL isomorphism test, and a suitable thresholding scheme that relates directly to the sensitivity and credibility of a model is still an open question. Methods: In this research, we further improved the expressiveness of the GNN model by introducing the substructure-aware bias by the graph subgraph transformer network model. Moreover, to propose the most appropriate thresholding scheme, a comprehensive comparison of the thresholding schemes was conducted. Results: Based on these improvements, the best model attains performance with 90.4% precision, 90.4% recall, and 90.5% F1-score with a dual-threshold scheme (active: <1μM; non-active: >30μM). The improved pipeline (graph subgraph transformer network model and thresholding scheme) also shows its advantages in terms of the activity cliff problem and model interpretability

    Application of a Two-Dimensional Mapping-Based Visualization Technique: Nutrient-Value-Based Food Grouping

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    Worldwide, several food-based dietary guidelines, with diverse food-grouping methods in various countries, have been developed to maintain and promote public health. However, standardized international food-grouping methods are scarce. In this study, we used two-dimensional mapping to classify foods based on their nutrient composition. The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan were used for mapping with a novel technique—t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding—to visualize high-dimensional data. The mapping results showed that most foods formed food group-based clusters in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan. However, the beverages did not form large clusters and demonstrated scattered distribution on the map. Green tea, black tea, and coffee are located within or near the vegetable cluster whereas cocoa is near the pulse cluster. These results were ensured by the k-nearest neighbors. Thus, beverages made from natural materials can be categorized based on their origin. Visualization of food composition could enable an enhanced comprehensive understanding of the nutrients in foods, which could lead to novel aspects of nutrient-value-based food classifications

    Variational Autoencoding Molecular Graphs with Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Model

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    In data-driven drug discovery, designing molecular descriptors is a very important task. Deep generative models such as variational autoencoders (VAEs) offer a potential solution by designing descriptors as probabilistic latent vectors derived from molecular structures. These models can be trained on large datasets, which have only molecular structures, and applied to transfer learning. Nevertheless, the approximate posterior distribution of the latent vectors of the usual VAE assumes a simple multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero covariance, which may limit the performance of representing the latent features. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel molecular deep generative model that incorporates a hierarchical structure into the probabilistic latent vectors. We achieve this by a denoising diffusion probabilistic model (DDPM). We demonstrate that our model can design effective molecular latent vectors for molecular property prediction from some experiments by small datasets on physical properties and activity. The results highlight the superior prediction performance and robustness of our model compared to existing approaches.Comment: 2 pages. Short paper submitted to IEEE CIBCB 202