615 research outputs found

    Immunotherapy targeting isoDGR-protein damage extends lifespan in a mouse model of protein deamidation

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    Aging results from the accumulation of molecular damage that impairs normal biochemical processes. We previously reported that age-linked damage to amino acid sequence NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) results in "gain-of-function" conformational switching to isoDGR (isoAsp-Gly-Arg). This integrin-binding motif activates leukocytes and promotes chronic inflammation, which are characteristic features of age-linked cardiovascular disorders. We now report that anti-isoDGR immunotherapy mitigates lifespan reduction of Pcmt1-/- mouse. We observed extensive accumulation of isoDGR and inflammatory cytokine expression in multiple tissues from Pcmt1-/- and naturally aged WT animals, which could also be induced via injection of isoDGR-modified plasma proteins or synthetic peptides into young WT animals. However, weekly injection of anti-isoDGR mAb (1 mg/kg) was sufficient to significantly reduce isoDGR-protein levels in body tissues, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in blood plasma, improved cognition/coordination metrics, and extended the average lifespan of Pcmt1-/- mice. Mechanistically, isoDGR-mAb mediated immune clearance of damaged isoDGR-proteins via antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). These results indicate that immunotherapy targeting age-linked protein damage may represent an effective intervention strategy in a range of human degenerative disorders

    Endothelial Damage Arising From High Salt Hypertension Is Elucidated by Vascular Bed Systematic Profiling

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    Background: Considerable evidence links dietary salt intake with the development of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Despite extensive epidemiological and basic science interrogation of the relationship between high salt (HS) intake and blood pressure, it remains unclear how HS impacts endothelial cell (EC) and vascular structure in vivo. This study aims to elucidate HS-induced vascular pathology using a differential systemic decellularization in vivo approach. Methods: We performed systematic molecular characterization of the endothelial glycocalyx and EC proteomes in mice with HS (8%) diet–induced hypertension versus healthy control animals. Isolation of eGC and EC compartments was achieved using differential systemic decellularization in vivo methodology. Altered protein expression in hypertensive compared to normal mice was characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated using functional assays, microscopic imaging, and histopathologic evaluation. Results: Proteomic analysis revealed a significant downregulation of eGC and associated proteins in HS diet–induced hypertensive mice (among 1696 proteins identified in this group, 723 were markedly decreased in abundance, while only 168 were increased in abundance. Bioinformatic analysis indicated substantial derangement of the eGC layer, which was subsequently confirmed by fluorescent and electron microscopy assessment of vessel damage ex vivo. In the EC fraction, HS-induced hypertension significantly altered protein mediators of contractility, metabolism, mechanotransduction, renal function, and the coagulation cascade. In particular, we observed dysregulation of integrin subunits α2, α2b, and α5, which was associated with arterial wall inflammation and substantial infiltration of CD68+ monocyte-macrophages. Consequently, HS-induced hypertensive mice also displayed reduced vascular integrity of multiple organs including lungs, kidneys, and heart. Conclusions: These findings provide novel molecular insight into HS-induced structural changes in eGC and EC composition that may increase cardiovascular risk and potentially guide the development of new diagnostics and therapeutic interventions

    Fundamentals of Bicarbonate Secretion in Epithelia

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    Advancing brain barriers RNA sequencing: guidelines from experimental design to publication

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    Background: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in its varied forms has become an indispensable tool for analyzing differential gene expression and thus characterization of specific tissues. Aiming to understand the brain barriers genetic signature, RNA seq has also been introduced in brain barriers research. This has led to availability of both, bulk and single-cell RNA-Seq datasets over the last few years. If appropriately performed, the RNA-Seq studies provide powerful datasets that allow for significant deepening of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that establish the brain barriers. However, RNA-Seq studies comprise complex workflows that require to consider many options and variables before, during and after the proper sequencing process.Main body: In the current manuscript, we build on the interdisciplinary experience of the European PhD Training Network BtRAIN (https://www.btrain-2020.eu/) where bioinformaticians and brain barriers researchers collaborated to analyze and establish RNA-Seq datasets on vertebrate brain barriers. The obstacles BtRAIN has identified in this process have been integrated into the present manuscript. It provides guidelines along the entire workflow of brain barriers RNA-Seq studies starting from the overall experimental design to interpretation of results. Focusing on the vertebrate endothelial blood–brain barrier (BBB) and epithelial blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier (BCSFB) of the choroid plexus, we provide a step-by-step description of the workflow, highlighting the decisions to be made at each step of the workflow and explaining the strengths and weaknesses of individual choices made. Finally, we propose recommendations for accurate data interpretation and on the information to be included into a publication to ensure appropriate accessibility of the data and reproducibility of the observations by the scientific community.Conclusion: Next generation transcriptomic profiling of the brain barriers provides a novel resource for understanding the development, function and pathology of these barrier cells, which is essential for understanding CNS homeostasis and disease. Continuous advancement and sophistication of RNA-Seq will require interdisciplinary approaches between brain barrier researchers and bioinformaticians as successfully performed in BtRAIN. The present guidelines are built on the BtRAIN interdisciplinary experience and aim to facilitate collaboration of brain barriers researchers with bioinformaticians to advance RNA-Seq study design in the brain barriers community

    Clearance of interstitial fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group-part of Vascular Professional Interest Area (PIA): Cerebrovascular disease and the failure of elimination of Amyloid-β from the brain and retina with age and Alzheimer's disease-Opportunities for Therapy.

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    Two of the key functions of arteries in the brain are (1) the well-recognized supply of blood via the vascular lumen and (2) the emerging role for the arterial walls as routes for the elimination of interstitial fluid (ISF) and soluble metabolites, such as amyloid beta (Aβ), from the brain and retina. As the brain and retina possess no conventional lymphatic vessels, fluid drainage toward peripheral lymph nodes is mediated via transport along basement membranes in the walls of capillaries and arteries that form the intramural peri-arterial drainage (IPAD) system. IPAD tends to fail as arteries age but the mechanisms underlying the failure are unclear. In some people this is reflected in the accumulation of Aβ plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and deposition of Aβ within artery walls as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Knowledge of the dynamics of IPAD and why it fails with age is essential for establishing diagnostic tests for the early stages of the disease and for devising therapies that promote the clearance of Aβ in the prevention and treatment of AD and CAA. This editorial is intended to introduce the rationale that has led to the establishment of the Clearance of Interstitial Fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group, within the Vascular Professional Interest Area of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment
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