32 research outputs found

    Envisioning a resilient future for biodiversity conservation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic

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    NE/T010401/1 UIDB/04647/2020 UIDP/04647/2020As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect societies across the world, the ongoing economic and social disruptions are likely to present fundamental challenges for current and future biodiversity conservation. We review the literature for outcomes of past major societal, political, economic and zoonotic perturbations on biodiversity conservation, and demonstrate the complex implications of perturbation events upon conservation efforts. Building on the review findings, we use six in-depth case studies and the emerging literature to identify positive and negative outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic, known and anticipated, for biodiversity conservation efforts around the world. A number of similarities exist between the current pandemic and past perturbations, with experiences highlighting that the pandemic-induced declines in conservation revenue and capacity, livelihood and trade disruptions are likely to have long-lasting and negative implications for biodiversity and conservation efforts. Yet, the COVID-19 pandemic also brought about a global pause in human movement that is unique in recent history, and may yet foster long-lasting behavioural and societal changes, presenting opportunities to strengthen and advance conservation efforts in the wake of the pandemic. Enhanced collaborations and partnerships at the local level, cross-sectoral engagement, local investment and leadership will all enhance the resilience of conservation efforts in the face of future perturbations. Other actions aimed at enhancing resilience will require fundamental institutional change and extensive government and public engagement and support if they are to be realised. The pandemic has highlighted the inherent vulnerabilities in the social and economic models upon which many conservation efforts are based. In so doing, it presents an opportunity to reconsider the status quo for conservation, and promotes behaviours and actions that are resilient to future perturbation. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.publishersversionpublishe

    Temporal scale‚Äźdependence of plant‚Äďpollinator networks

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    The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very different perspectives on the structure and composition of species interactions. Furthermore, it remains unclear how various factors ‚Äď including species richness, species turnover, link rewiring and sampling effort ‚Äď act in concert to shape network structure across different temporal scales. To address these issues, we used a large database of temporally-resolved plant‚Äďpollinator networks to investigate how temporal aggregation from the scale of one day to multiple years influences network structure. In addition, we used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect effects of temporal scale, species richness, species turnover, link rewiring and sampling effort on network structural properties. We find that plant‚Äďpollinator network structure is strongly temporally-scale dependent. This general pattern arises because the temporal scale determines the degree to which temporal dynamics (i.e. phenological turnover of species and links) are included in the network, in addition to how much sampling effort is put into constructing the network. Ultimately, the temporal scale-dependence of our plant‚Äďpollinator networks appears to be mostly driven by species richness, which increases with sampling effort, and species turnover, which increases with temporal extent. In other words, after accounting for variation in species richness, network structure is increasingly shaped by its underlying temporal dynamics. Our results suggest that considering multiple temporal scales may be necessary to fully appreciate the causes and consequences of interaction network structure.Fil: Schwarz, Benjamin. Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg; AlemaniaFil: Vazquez, Diego P.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Provincia de Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas; ArgentinaFil: Cara Donna, Paul J.. Chicago Botanic Garden; Estados UnidosFil: Knight, Tiffany M.. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Benadi, Gita. Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg; AlemaniaFil: Dormann, Carsten F.. Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg; AlemaniaFil: Gauzens, Benoit. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Motivans, Elena. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Resasco, Julian. University of Colorado; Estados UnidosFil: Bl√ľthgen, Nico. Universitat Technische Darmstadt; AlemaniaFil: Burkle, Laura A.. Montana State University; AlemaniaFil: Fang, Qiang. Henan University of Science and Technology; ChinaFil: Kaiser Bunbury, Christopher N.. University of Exeter; Reino UnidoFil: Alarc√≥n, Ruben. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Bain, Justin A.. Chicago Botanic Garden; Estados UnidosFil: Chacoff, Natacha Paola. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Instituto de Ecolog√≠a Regional. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto de Ecolog√≠a Regional; ArgentinaFil: Huang, Shuang Quan. Central China Normal University; ChinaFil: LeBuhn, Gretchen. San Francisco State University; Estados UnidosFil: MacLeod, Molly. Rutgers University; Estados UnidosFil: Petanidou, Theodora. Univversity of the Aegean; Estados UnidosFil: Rasmussen, Claus. University Aarhus; DinamarcaFil: Simanonok, Michael P.. Montana State University; Estados UnidosFil: Thompson, Amibeth H.. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Fr√ľnd, Jochen. Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg; Alemani

    The diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large plant clades: Apocynaceae as a case study

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    Background and Aims Large clades of angiosperms are often characterized by diverse interactions with pollinators, but how these pollination systems are structured phylogenetically and biogeographically is still uncertain for most families. Apocynaceae is a clade of >5300 species with a worldwide distribution. A database representing >10 % of species in the family was used to explore the diversity of pollinators and evolutionary shifts in pollination systems across major clades and regions. Methods The database was compiled from published and unpublished reports. Plants were categorized into broad pollination systems and then subdivided to include bimodal systems. These were mapped against the five major divisions of the family, and against the smaller clades. Finally, pollination systems were mapped onto a phylogenetic reconstruction that included those species for which sequence data are available, and transition rates between pollination systems were calculated. Key Results Most Apocynaceae are insect pollinated with few records of bird pollination. Almost three-quarters of species are pollinated by a single higher taxon (e.g. flies or moths); 7 % have bimodal pollination systems, whilst the remaining approx. 20 % are insect generalists. The less phenotypically specialized flowers of the Rauvolfioids are pollinated by a more restricted set of pollinators than are more complex flowers within the Apocynoids + Periplocoideae + Secamonoideae + Asclepiadoideae (APSA) clade. Certain combinations of bimodal pollination systems are more common than others. Some pollination systems are missing from particular regions, whilst others are over-represented. Conclusions Within Apocynaceae, interactions with pollinators are highly structured both phylogenetically and biogeographically. Variation in transition rates between pollination systems suggest constraints on their evolution, whereas regional differences point to environmental effects such as filtering of certain pollinators from habitats. This is the most extensive analysis of its type so far attempted and gives important insights into the diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large clades

    Invasion of yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in a Seychelles UNESCO palm forest

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    The mature palm forest of the Vallée de Mai, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, on the Seychelles island of Praslin, is a unique ecosystem containing many endemic species, including the iconic coco de mer palm Lodoicea maldivica. In 2009, the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes was recorded for the first time within the palm forest, raising concern about its potential impacts on the endemic fauna. This research aimed to: (1) assess the current distribution and spread of A. gracilipes within the palm forest; (2) identify environmental variables that are linked to A. gracilipes distribution; and (3) compare endemic species richness and abundance in A. gracilipes invaded and uninvaded areas. Anoplolepis gracilipes was confined to the north-east of the site and remained almost stationary between April 2010 and December 2012, with isolated outbreaks into the forest. Infested areas had significantly higher temperature and humidity and lower canopy cover. Abundance and species richness of the endemic arboreal fauna were lower in the A. gracilipes invaded area. Molluscs were absent from the invaded area. The current restricted distribution of A. gracilipes in this ecosystem, combined with lower abundance of endemic fauna in the invaded area, highlight the need for further research to assess control measures and the possible role of biotic resistance to the invasion of the palm forest by A. gracilipes

    Developments of polymorphic microsatellite markers of the Seychelles endemic tree Glionnetia sericea (Rubiaceae)

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    Abstract Glionnetia sericea (Rubiaceae) is an endemic and rare tree species of the Seychelles, restricted to altitudes between 500 and 900 m with less than 1,000 remaining individuals. It survives in mist forests but also in smaller populations on granitic outcrops (inselbergs) and is polli-nated by hawk moths which might ensure long-distance pollen flow. Understanding the reproductive ecology of this species will allow a better understanding on how such species survive in naturally fragmented habitats and will provide scientifically informed management recommenda-tions. Here we report on ten species specific polymorphic microsatellite loci developed for a study of historic and contemporary gene flow. Based upon a sample of 81 adults, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 12 (mean of 6.1 per locus) with an average polymorphic information content of 0.52 across loci. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.27 to 0.82 with two of ten primers showing some deviation from Hardy‚ÄďWeinberg expectation

    Determinants of the microstructure of plant-pollinator networks

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    Identifying the determinants of biological interactions in mutualistic networks is key to understanding the rules that govern the organization of biodiversity. We used structural equation modeling and dissimilarities in nine ecological variables to investigate community processes underlying the turnover of species and their interaction frequencies (interaction pattern) among highly resolved plant-pollinator networks. Floral and pollinator community composition, i.e., species identities and their abundances, were strong determinants of the microstructure of pairwise interactions among the networks, explaining almost 69% of their variation. Flower and pollinator traits were directly related to interaction patterns, but were partly masked in the model by shared variance with community composition. Time of year and geographic location, floral and pollinator abundances independent of species identity, and relative abundance of exotic flowers had indirect and relatively weak effects on interaction patterns. Our analyses lead to precise predictions about the processes behind the interaction patterns in mutualistic networks. Future understanding of these processes will be aided by studies that evaluate these predictions experimentally at the network level.Fil: Kaiser Bunbury, Christopher N.. Ecological Networks; AlemaniaFil: Vazquez, Diego P.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Provincia de Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas; ArgentinaFil: Stang, Martina. Leiden University; Pa√≠ses BajosFil: Ghazoul, Jaboury. Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems; Suiz