33,945 research outputs found

    Image_13_Association between gut microbiota and peptic ulcer disease, particularly gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.TIF

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    BackgroundRecent an observational study has suggested a potential connection between gut microbiota (GM) and peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs), particularly gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU). However, the causal connection remains unsure.MethodsA two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) is carried out to explore the connection between the GM and DU or GU. Data on the GM comes from the MiBioGend database, and GU or DU data are based on the FinnGen database. One group of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P ‚ąí8) are served as instrumental variables (IVs). To obtain a more comprehensive conclusion, the other SNPs (P ‚ąí5) are selected as IVs. Inverse variance weighting (IVW) is used to determine the causal relationship.ResultsAt the level of P ‚ąí5, the IVW analysis suggests that Clostridiaceae1, Butyriccoccus, and Peptcoccus have harmful effects on GU, while LachnospiraceaeUCG004 and MollicutesRF9 have beneficial effects on GU. Then, in the case of DU, the IVW analysis suggested that Lentisphaeria, Negativicutes, Clostridiaceae1, ClostridiumseMnsustricto1, ErysipelotrichaceaeUCG003, LachnospiraceaeNC2004group, Selenomonadale, Victivallales, and Lentisphaerae have harmful effects, while Catenibacterium, Escherichia.Shigella, LachnospiraceaeUCG008, and Sutterella have beneficial effects. When P ‚ąí8, IVW analysis suggests that GM has no significant influence on GU or DU.ConclusionThis two-sample MR indicates a causal relationship between GM and GU or DU.</p

    Image_8_Association between gut microbiota and peptic ulcer disease, particularly gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.TIF

    No full text
    BackgroundRecent an observational study has suggested a potential connection between gut microbiota (GM) and peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs), particularly gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU). However, the causal connection remains unsure.MethodsA two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) is carried out to explore the connection between the GM and DU or GU. Data on the GM comes from the MiBioGend database, and GU or DU data are based on the FinnGen database. One group of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P ‚ąí8) are served as instrumental variables (IVs). To obtain a more comprehensive conclusion, the other SNPs (P ‚ąí5) are selected as IVs. Inverse variance weighting (IVW) is used to determine the causal relationship.ResultsAt the level of P ‚ąí5, the IVW analysis suggests that Clostridiaceae1, Butyriccoccus, and Peptcoccus have harmful effects on GU, while LachnospiraceaeUCG004 and MollicutesRF9 have beneficial effects on GU. Then, in the case of DU, the IVW analysis suggested that Lentisphaeria, Negativicutes, Clostridiaceae1, ClostridiumseMnsustricto1, ErysipelotrichaceaeUCG003, LachnospiraceaeNC2004group, Selenomonadale, Victivallales, and Lentisphaerae have harmful effects, while Catenibacterium, Escherichia.Shigella, LachnospiraceaeUCG008, and Sutterella have beneficial effects. When P ‚ąí8, IVW analysis suggests that GM has no significant influence on GU or DU.ConclusionThis two-sample MR indicates a causal relationship between GM and GU or DU.</p

    Iron(II) Phthalocyanine-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes with Diazoacetonitrile: A Novel Approach to Construct Alkenyl Nitriles

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    A novel synthetic approach to preparing alkenyl nitriles via the olefination of aldehydes with diazoacetonitrile catalyzed by iron(II) phthalocyanine in the presence of PPh3 has been developed. A broad variety of aldehydes are efficiently transformed into the corresponding products with the high yields of 75%‚Äď97%. And it is also suitable for its gram-scale preparation. The suggested mechanism involves the transformation of the phosphazine to ylide by iron(II) phthalocyanine

    Summary of leave-one-out sensitivity analysis for the effects on limb function after stroke.

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    Summary of leave-one-out sensitivity analysis for the effects on limb function after stroke.</p

    Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile-Fluorinated Polyurethane/Polysulfone Nanofiber Membranes for Oil‚ÄďWater Separation

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    Electrospun nanofiber membranes exhibit efficient oil‚Äďwater separation performance, owing to their fine and controllable fiber diameters. However, the three-dimensional dense stacking of nanofibers leads to low porosity, decreasing the oil flux in oil‚Äďwater separation. Here, a composite nanofiber membrane with a dual-scale structure was designed to achieve a high oil‚Äďwater separation efficiency and high oil flux simultaneously. In detail, a dense polyurethane/fluorinated polyurethanes (PAN-FPU) nanofiber layer with a fine fiber diameter (150 nm) and a small pore size (3‚Äď4 őľm) was combined with a fluffy polysulfone (PSF) nanofiber layer with a coarse diameter (1200 nm) and a large pore size (8‚Äď9 őľm). Using the PAN-FPU nanofiber layer as the inlet layer, modular electrospinning equipment was used to prepare dual-scale nanofiber membranes with a high oil‚Äďwater separation efficiency and high flux in one step. When the fiber ratio of PAN-FPU/PSF was 1:2, the resulting composite nanofiber film could achieve a separation efficiency of 99.58% and an oil flux of 4630 L m‚Äď2 h‚Äď1 for an oil‚Äďwater mixture. For a water-in-oil emulsion, the separation efficiency and oil flux reached 99.37% and 1124 L m‚Äď2 h‚Äď1, respectively. In addition, the separation efficiency and flux of the biscale nanofiber membrane were simulated by establishing a fluid model, and the simulation results confirmed that the fiber membrane had excellent separation performance. Dual-scale composite nanofiber membranes have potential applications in the field of oily wastewater treatment and locomotive filters compared with monolayer membranes

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Multiplicity dependence of ŌÉŌą(2S)/ŌÉJ/Ōą\sigma_{\psi(2S)}/\sigma_{J/\psi} in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV

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    International audienceThe ratio of production cross-sections of Ōą(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ŌąJ/\psi mesons as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV is measured with a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 658 pb‚ąí1^{-1}. The ratio is measured for both prompt and non-prompt Ōą(2S)\psi(2S) and J/ŌąJ/\psi mesons. When there is an overlap between the rapidity ranges over which multiplicity and charmonia production are measured, a multiplicity-dependent modification of the ratio is observed for prompt mesons. No significant multiplicity dependence is found when the ranges do not overlap. For non-prompt production, the Ōą(2S)‚ąíto‚ąíJ/Ōą\psi(2S)-to-J/\psi production ratio is roughly independent of multiplicity irrespective of the rapidity range over which the multiplicity is measured. The results are compared to predictions of the co-mover model and agree well except in the low multiplicity region. The ratio of production cross-sections of Ōą(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ŌąJ/\psi mesons are cross-checked with other measurements in di-lepton channels and found to be compatible

    Engineering Sizable and Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Fabrics through Hydrogen Bonding Interaction and Electrostatic Interaction

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    Long-lasting and highly efficient antibacterial fabrics play a key role in public health occurrences caused by bacterial and viral infections. However, the production of antibacterial fabrics with a large size, highly efficient, and broad-spectrum antibacterial performance remains a great challenge due to the complex processes. Herein, we demonstrate sizable and highly efficient antibacterial fabrics through hydrogen bonding interaction and electrostatic interaction between surface groups of ZnO nanoparticles and fabric fibers. The production process can be carried out at room temperature and achieve a production rate of 300 √ó 1 m2 within 1 h. Under both visible light and dark conditions, the bactericidal rate against Gram-positive (S. aureus), Gram-negative (E. coli), and multidrug-resistant (MRSA) bacteria can reach an impressive 99.99%. Furthermore, the fabricated ZnO nanoparticle-decorated antibacterial fabrics (ZnO@fabric) show high stability and long-lasting antibacterial performance, making them easy to develop into variable antibacterial blocks for protection suits
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