58 research outputs found

    Planktonic events may cause polymictic-dimictic regime shifts in temperate lakes

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    Water transparency affects the thermal structure of lakes, and within certain lake depth ranges, it can determine whether a lake mixes regularly (polymictic regime) or stratifies continuously (dimictic regime) from spring through summer. Phytoplankton biomass can influence transparency but the effect of its seasonal pattern on stratification is unknown. Therefore we analysed long term field data from two lakes of similar depth, transparency and climate but one polymictic and one dimictic, and simulated a conceptual lake with a hydrodynamic model. Transparency in the study lakes was typically low during spring and summer blooms and high in between during the clear water phase (CWP), caused when zooplankton graze the spring bloom. The effect of variability of transparency on thermal structure was stronger at intermediate transparency and stronger during a critical window in spring when the rate of lake warming is highest. Whereas the spring bloom strengthened stratification in spring, the CWP weakened it in summer. The presence or absence of the CWP influenced stratification duration and under some conditions determined the mixing regime. Therefore seasonal plankton dynamics, including biotic interactions that suppress the CWP, can influence lake temperatures, stratification duration, and potentially also the mixing regime

    The biogeography of abundant and rare bacterioplankton in the lakes and reservoirs of China.

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    Bacteria play key roles in the ecology of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known about their diversity and biogeography, especially in the rare microbial biosphere of inland freshwater ecosystems. Here we investigated aspects of the community ecology and geographical distribution of abundant and rare bacterioplankton using high-throughput sequencing and examined the relative influence of local environmental variables and regional (spatial) factors on their geographical distribution patterns in 42 lakes and reservoirs across China. Our results showed that the geographical patterns of abundant and rare bacterial subcommunities were generally similar, and both of them showed a significant distance-decay relationship. This suggests that the rare bacterial biosphere is not a random assembly, as some authors have assumed, and that its distribution is most likely subject to the same ecological processes that control abundant taxa. However, we identified some differences between the abundant and rare groups as both groups of bacteria showed a significant positive relationship between sites occupancy and abundance, but the abundant bacteria exhibited a weaker distance-decay relationship than the rare bacteria. Our results implied that rare subcommunities were mostly governed by local environmental variables, whereas the abundant subcommunities were mainly affected by regional factors. In addition, both local and regional variables that were significantly related to the spatial variation of abundant bacterial community composition were different to those of rare ones, suggesting that abundant and rare bacteria may have discrepant ecological niches and may play different roles in natural ecosystems

    Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.

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    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field
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