67 research outputs found

    National trends in the outcomes of subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prognostic influence of stroke centre capability in Japan: retrospective cohort study

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    Objectives To examine the national, 6-year trends in in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping or coiling and the prognostic influence of temporal trends in the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) capabilities on patient outcomes in Japan.Design Retrospective study.Setting Six hundred and thirty-one primary care institutions in Japan.Participants Forty-five thousand and eleven patients with SAH who were urgently hospitalised, identified using the J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual number of patients with SAH who remained untreated, or who received clipping or coiling, in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale: 3–6) at discharge. Each CSC was assessed using a validated scoring system (CSC score: 1–25 points).Results In the overall cohort, in-hospital mortality decreased (year for trend, OR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99)), while the proportion of poor functional outcomes remained unchanged (1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)). The proportion of patients who underwent clipping gradually decreased from 46.6% to 38.5%, while that of those who received coiling and those left untreated gradually increased from 16.9% to 22.6% and 35.4% to 38%, respectively. In-hospital mortality of coiled (0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)) and untreated (0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)) patients decreased, whereas that of clipped patients remained stable. CSC score improvement was associated with increased use of coiling (per 1-point increase, 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)) but not with short-term patient outcomes regardless of treatment modality.Conclusions The 6-year trends indicated lower in-hospital mortality for patients with SAH (attributable to better outcomes), increased use of coiling and multidisciplinary care for untreated patients. Further increasing CSC capabilities may improve overall outcomes, mainly by increasing the use of coiling. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of confounders such as aneurysm complexity on outcomes of clipped patients in the modern endovascular era

    Development of an Automatic Ultrasound Image Classification System for Pressure Injury Based on Deep Learning

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    The classification of ultrasound (US) findings of pressure injury is important to select the appropriate treatment and care based on the state of the deep tissue, but it depends on the operator’s skill in image interpretation. Therefore, US for pressure injury is a procedure that can only be performed by a limited number of highly trained medical professionals. This study aimed to develop an automatic US image classification system for pressure injury based on deep learning that can be used by non-specialists who do not have a high skill in image interpretation. A total 787 training data were collected at two hospitals in Japan. The US images of pressure injuries were assessed using the deep learning-based classification tool according to the following visual evidence: unclear layer structure, cobblestone-like pattern, cloud-like pattern, and anechoic pattern. Thereafter, accuracy was assessed using two parameters: detection performance, and the value of the intersection over union (IoU) and DICE score. A total of 73 images were analyzed as test data. Of all 73 images with an unclear layer structure, 7 showed a cobblestone-like pattern, 14 showed a cloud-like pattern, and 15 showed an anechoic area. All four US findings showed a detection performance of 71.4–100%, with a mean value of 0.38–0.80 for IoU and 0.51–0.89 for the DICE score. The results show that US findings and deep learning-based classification can be used to detect deep tissue pressure injuries

    フローチャートとScratchで始めるアジア諸国からの留学生への新しいプログラミング教育

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    業務マニュアルという視点からフローチャートとScratch を用いた新しいプログラミング教育の授業をアジア諸国からの留学生に対して実施した。その結果、筆者が担当した留学生に限った結果ではあるが、特に、起業を考えている留学生には肯定的な評価が得られることが明らかになった。A new programming education class was conducted for foreign students from Asian countries that is using flowcharts and Scratch from the perspective of an operational manual.As a result, it was revealed that although the results were limited to the foreign students the author was in charge of, especially the foreign students who are thinking of starting a business get a positive evaluation

    Are graduating residents sufficiently competent? Results of a national gap analysis survey of program directors and graduating residents in Japan

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    Purpose To evaluate the self-assessed competency of graduating residents (GRs) in Japan upon completion of their residency and to identify the gap between their competency and the competency expected by their program directors (PDs). Method A list of 31 essential surgical procedures was compiled according to the consensus of surgical educators from around the country. A survey with this list was sent to all 909 GRs and their 611 PDs in 2016. The GRs rated their competency to perform these procedures and the PDs were asked to evaluate the expected competency of their GRs using the Zwisch Scale. Result The response rate was 56.3% for the GRs and 76.8% for the PDs. Fewer than half of the GRs who responded felt confident performing ten (32%) of the surgical procedures evaluated. For most procedures, the GRs' self-reported competency was lower than the expectation reported by their PDs. This gap was more than 10% for 13 of the procedures. Conclusion More than half of the GRs in Japan lacked the confidence in their skill to perform one-third of the surgical procedures selected for evaluation in this study. These findings should be used to update the surgical education curriculum in Japan
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