267 research outputs found

    Clinical impact of PCR-based Aspergillus and azole resistance detection in invasive aspergillosis. A prospective multicenter study

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    BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis(IA) by a triazole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with a high mortality. Real-time resistance detection will result in earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. METHODS: In a prospective study in the Netherlands and Belgium, we evaluated the clinical value of the multiplex AsperGenius¬ģPCR in hematology patients from 12 centers. This PCR detects the most frequent cyp51A mutations in A. fumigatus conferring azole-resistance. Patients were included when a CT-scan showed a pulmonary infiltrate and bronchoalveolar lavage(BALf) sampling was performed. The primary endpoint was antifungal treatment failure in patients with azole-resistant IA. Patients with mixed azole-susceptible/resistant infections were excluded. RESULTS: Of 323 patients enrolled, complete mycological and radiological information was available in 276/323(94%) and probable IA diagnosed in 99/276(36%). Sufficient BALf for PCR testing was available in 293/323(91%). Aspergillus DNA was detected in 116/293(40%) and A.fumigatus DNA in 89/293(30%). The resistance PCR was conclusive in 58/89(65%) and resistance detected in 8/58(14%). Two had a mixed azole-susceptible/resistant infection. In the 6 remaining patients, treatment failure was observed in one. Galactomannan positivity was associated with higher mortality(p=0.004). In contrast, mortality of patients with an isolated positive Aspergillus PCR was comparable to those with a negative PCR(p=0.83). CONCLUSIONS: Real-time PCR-based resistance testing may help to limit the clinical impact of triazole resistance. In contrast, the clinical impact of an isolated positive Aspergillus PCR on BALf seems limited. The interpretation of the EORTC/MSGERC PCR criterion for BALf may need further specification (e.g. minimum Ct-value and/or PCR positive on >1 BALf sample)

    Immunovirological and environmental screening reveals actionable risk factors for fatal COVID-19 during post-vaccination nursing home outbreaksAbstract

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    Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Humboldt Penguins‚ÄĒSusceptibility Patterns andMolecular Epidemiology of Clinical and Environmental Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from a Belgian Zoo

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    peer reviewedAspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of avian aspergillosis and results in significant health problems in birds, especially those living in captivity. The fungal contamination by A. fumigatus in the environment of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), located in a Belgian zoo, was assessed through the analysis of air, water, sand and nest samples during four non-consecutive days in 2021-2022. From these samples, potential azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) isolates were detected using a selective culture medium. A total of 28 veterinary isolates obtained after necropsy of Humboldt penguins and other avian species from the zoo were also included. All veterinary and suspected ARAF isolates from the environment were characterized for their azole-resistance profile by broth microdilution. Isolates displaying phenotypic resistance against at least one medical azole were systematically screened for mutations in the cyp51A gene. A total of 14 (13.6%) ARAF isolates were identified from the environment (n = 8) and from Humboldt penguins (n = 6). The TR34/L98H mutation was observed in all resistant environmental strains, and in two resistant veterinary strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of this mutation in A. fumigatus isolates from Humboldt penguins. During the period 2017-2022, pulmonary aspergillosis was confirmed in 51 necropsied penguins, which reflects a death rate due to aspergillosis of 68.0%, mostly affecting adults. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis revealed a high level of diversity among environmental and veterinary A. fumigatus isolates. However, a cluster was observed between one veterinary isolate and six environmental strains, all resistant to medical azoles. In conclusion, the environment of the Humboldt penguins is a potential contamination source of ARAF, making their management even more complex
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