313,231 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015‚Äď2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Cardiac magnetic resonance analysis of left atrium function in patients with pre-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Background: Patients presenting with unexplained T wave inversion on electrocardiogram combined with thickened left ventricular apex but less than 15 mm had been proposed as a preclinical scope of apical hypertrophy cardiomyopathy (pre-ApHCM). However, analysis of left atrial (LA) function in these patients has not been studied. This study aims to evaluate the LA function in pre-ApHCM patients and compare it with patients with ApHCM using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, a total of 3,593 CMR reports from Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, China were reviewed. Finally, 31 pre-ApHCM patients were identified and 40 ApHCM and 31 normal controls were included for comparison. LA volumetric and strain were analyzed by CMR. Two-tailed one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the difference of three groups. Pearson correlation test was used for correlation analysis. Results: All of the volumetric parameters in pre-ApHCM group were higher than those in control group. LA reservoir (LA total EF, őĶs) and conduit function (LA passive EF, őĶe) parameters, were significantly different among the three groups, which were the lowest in the ApHCM group, intermediate in the pre-ApHCM group, and the highest in the control group ((all P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the LA booster pump function, both the booster EF and booster pump strain (őĶa) in ApHCM were impaired (P=0.003 and P=0.002 respectively). Meanwhile, only the őĶa was impaired (P=0.016) while LA booster EF was not (P=0.064) in the pre-ApHCM group, neither őĶa nor the booster EF show difference between the ApHCM and pre-ApHCM (P=0.272 and P=0.518 respectively). Conclusions: LA function features in pre-ApHCM patients were similar to ApHCM but different from the normal controls. In pre-ApHCM and ApHCM patients, LA reservoir and conduit function impaired earlier before left atrium enlarged and decreased progressively as apex thickens. These findings may help to understand the LA functional change from pre-ApHCM to ApHCM, and to detect subclinical changes in patients with pre-ApHCM before overt hypertrophy or clinical symptoms develop

    Associations of antidiabetic drugs with diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes: an umbrella review and meta-analysis

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    BackgroundDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequent complication of type 2 diabetes and remains the leading cause of preventable blindness. Current clinical decisions regarding the administration of antidiabetic drugs do not sufficiently incorporate the risk of DR due to the inconclusive evidence from preceding meta-analyses. This umbrella review aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of antidiabetic drugs on DR in people with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA systematic literature search was undertaken in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (from inception till 17th May 2022) without language restrictions to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials or longitudinal studies that examined the association between antidiabetic drugs and DR in people with type 2 diabetes. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies using the AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist, and evidence assessment was performed using the GRADE (Grading of recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Random-effects models were applied to calculate relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022332052).ResultsWith trial evidence from 11 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, we found that the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i), or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) was not statistically associated with the risk of DR, compared to either placebo (RR: GLP-1 RA, 0.98, 0.89-1.08; SGLT-2i, 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.27; DPP-4i, 1.17, 0.99-1.39) or other antidiabetic drugs. Compared to other antidiabetic drugs, meglitinides (0.34, 0.01-8.25), SGLT-2i (0.73, 0.10-5.16), thiazolidinediones (0.92, 0.67-1.26), metformin (1.15, 0.81-1.63), sulphonylureas (1.24, 0.93-1.65), and acarbose (4.21, 0.44-40.43) were not statistically associated with the risk of DR. With evidence from longitudinal studies only, insulin was found to have a higher risk of DR than other antidiabetic drugs (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 2.04-2.99).ConclusionOur results indicate that antidiabetic drugs are generally safe to prescribe regarding the risk of DR among people with type 2 diabetes. Further robust and large-scale trials investigating the effects of insulin, meglitinides, and acarbose on DR are warranted.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=332052, identifier CRD42022332052

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450‚ÄČ000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2¬∑1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13¬∑0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63‚ÄČ093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11‚ÄČ848 (18¬∑8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50¬∑2%) of 11‚ÄČ476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49¬∑8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3¬∑1%) of 11‚ÄČ848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9¬∑6 years (IQR 5¬∑8-13¬∑2). 10‚ÄČ099 (89¬∑9%) of 11‚ÄČ235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10¬∑1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5¬∑2%) of 11‚ÄČ848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92¬∑4%] of 10‚ÄČ202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48¬∑0%] of 415). 3414 (31¬∑6%) of 10‚ÄČ804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72¬∑4%) of 10‚ÄČ428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5¬∑00 mmol/L (IQR 4¬∑05-6¬∑08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life