302,889 research outputs found

    EUSO-SPB1 mission and science

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    International audienceThe Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon 1 (EUSO-SPB1) was launched in 2017 April from Wanaka, New Zealand. The plan of this mission of opportunity on a NASA super pressure balloon test flight was to circle the southern hemisphere. The primary scientific goal was to make the first observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray extensive air showers (EASs) by looking down on the atmosphere with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence telescope from suborbital altitude (33 km). After 12 days and 4 h aloft, the flight was terminated prematurely in the Pacific Ocean. Before the flight, the instrument was tested extensively in the West Desert of Utah, USA, with UV point sources and lasers. The test results indicated that the instrument had sensitivity to EASs of âȘ†3 EeV. Simulations of the telescope system, telescope on time, and realized flight trajectory predicted an observation of about 1 event assuming clear sky conditions. The effects of high clouds were estimated to reduce this value by approximately a factor of 2. A manual search and a machine-learning-based search did not find any EAS signals in these data. Here we review the EUSO-SPB1 instrument and flight and the EAS search

    Atomic Layer Deposition—A Versatile Toolbox for Designing/Engineering Electrodes for Advanced Supercapacitors

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    Abstract Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become the most widely used thin‐film deposition technique in various fields due to its unique advantages, such as self‐terminating growth, precise thickness control, and excellent deposition quality. In the energy storage domain, ALD has shown great potential for supercapacitors (SCs) by enabling the construction and surface engineering of novel electrode materials. This review aims to present a comprehensive outlook on the development, achievements, and design of advanced electrodes involving the application of ALD for realizing high‐performance SCs to date, as organized in several sections of this paper. Specifically, this review focuses on understanding the influence of ALD parameters on the electrochemical performance and discusses the ALD of nanostructured electrochemically active electrode materials on various templates for SCs. It examines the influence of ALD parameters on electrochemical performance and highlights ALD's role in passivating electrodes and creating 3D nanoarchitectures. The relationship between synthesis procedures and SC properties is analyzed to guide future research in preparing materials for various applications. Finally, it is concluded by suggesting the directions and scope of future research and development to further leverage the unique advantages of ALD for fabricating new materials and harness the unexplored opportunities in the fabrication of advanced‐generation SCs

    Supplementary Material for: Phenotypic and Genetic Alterations in Adult-Onset Cone and Cone-rod Dystrophy

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    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics and genetic spectrum of adult-onset cone/cone-rod dystrophy (AOCD/AOCRD) in Korean individuals. Methods: This is single center, retrospective cross-sectional study. We analyzed 22 individuals with genetically confirmed cone dystrophy, with symptoms beginning after 30 years of age. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic and electrophysiological examinations. Exome sequencing of 296 genes associated with inherited retinal disease was performed. The clinical features of patients with AOCD/AOCRD and the causative genes and variants detected by exome sequencing were analyzed. Results: The median age at the first visit was 52 years (range, 31 to 76 years), and the most common initial symptom was reduced visual acuity. In most cases, fundus photography showed a bull’s eye pattern with foveal sparing, consistent with perifoveal photoreceptor loss on optical coherence tomography. We identified disease-causing variants in six genes: RP1, CRX, CDHR1, PROM1, CRB1, and GUCY2D. Pathogenic variants in RP1, CRX, and CDHR1 were identified in 77% of the AOCD/AOCRD cases, including p. Cys1399LeufsTer5, p.Arg1933Ter, and p.Ile2061SerfsTer12 in RP1; p.Ter300GlnextTer118 in CRX; and p.Glu201Lys in CDHR1. No characteristic imaging differences were observed for any of the causative genes. Most of the RP1-related AOCD/AOCRD cases showed a decreased amplitude only in the photopic electroretinogram (ERG), whereas CRX-related AOCD/AOCRD cases showed a slightly decreased amplitude in both the scotopic and photopic ERGs. Conclusion: In case of visual impairment with bull’s eye pattern of RPE atrophy recognized after the middle age, a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and genetic test should be considered, with the possibility of AOCD/AOCRD in East Asians

    A portrait of the Higgs boson by the CMS experiment ten years after the discovery

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    In July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider announced the observation of a Higgs boson at a mass of around 125 gigaelectronvolts. Ten years later, and with the data corresponding to the production of a 30-times larger number of Higgs bosons, we have learnt much more about the properties of the Higgs boson. The CMS experiment has observed the Higgs boson in numerous fermionic and bosonic decay channels, established its spin–parity quantum numbers, determined its mass and measured its production cross-sections in various modes. Here the CMS Collaboration reports the most up-to-date combination of results on the properties of the Higgs boson, including the most stringent limit on the cross-section for the production of a pair of Higgs bosons, on the basis of data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 teraelectronvolts. Within the uncertainties, all these observations are compatible with the predictions of the standard model of elementary particle physics. Much evidence points to the fact that the standard model is a low-energy approximation of a more comprehensive theory. Several of the standard model issues originate in the sector of Higgs boson physics. An order of magnitude larger number of Higgs bosons, expected to be examined over the next 15 years, will help deepen our understanding of this crucial sector

    Solar neutrino measurements using the full data period of Super-Kamiokande-IV

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    International audienceAn analysis of solar neutrino data from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande~(SK-IV) from October 2008 to May 2018 is performed and the results are presented. The observation time of the data set of SK-IV corresponds to 29702970~days and the total live time for all four phases is 58055805~days. For more precise solar neutrino measurements, several improvements are applied in this analysis: lowering the data acquisition threshold in May 2015, further reduction of the spallation background using neutron clustering events, precise energy reconstruction considering the time variation of the PMT gain. The observed number of solar neutrino events in 3.493.49--19.4919.49~MeV electron kinetic energy region during SK-IV is 65,443−388+390 (stat.)±925 (syst.)65,443^{+390}_{-388}\,(\mathrm{stat.})\pm 925\,(\mathrm{syst.}) events. Corresponding 8B\mathrm{^{8}B} solar neutrino flux is (2.314±0.014 (stat.)±0.040 (syst.))×106 cm−2 s−1(2.314 \pm 0.014\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.040 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}, assuming a pure electron-neutrino flavor component without neutrino oscillations. The flux combined with all SK phases up to SK-IV is (2.336±0.011 (stat.)±0.043 (syst.))×106 cm−2 s−1(2.336 \pm 0.011\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.043 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}. Based on the neutrino oscillation analysis from all solar experiments, including the SK 58055805~days data set, the best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters are sin2Ξ12, solar=0.306±0.013\rm{sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,solar}} = 0.306 \pm 0.013 and Δm21, solar2=(6.10−0.81+0.95)×10−5 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{solar}} = (6.10^{+ 0.95}_{-0.81}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}, with a deviation of about 1.5σ\sigma from the Δm212\Delta m^{2}_{21} parameter obtained by KamLAND. The best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters obtained from all solar experiments and KamLAND are sin⁥2Ξ12, global=0.307±0.012\sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,\mathrm{global}} = 0.307 \pm 0.012 and Δm21, global2=(7.50−0.18+0.19)×10−5 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{global}} = (7.50^{+ 0.19}_{-0.18}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}

    Estimating the subsolar magnetopause position from soft X-ray images using a low-pass image filter

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    The Lunar Environment heliospheric X-ray Imager (LEXI) and Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) missions will image the Earth’s dayside magnetopause and cusps in soft X-rays after their respective launches in the near future, to specify global magnetic reconnection modes for varying solar wind conditions. To support the success of these scientific missions, it is critical to develop techniques that extract the magnetopause locations from the observed soft X-ray images. In this research, we introduce a new geometric equation that calculates the subsolar magnetopause position (\begin{document}Rs {R}_{\mathrm{s}} \end{document}) from a satellite position, the look direction of the instrument, and the angle at which the X-ray emission is maximized. Two assumptions are used in this method: (1) The look direction where soft X-ray emissions are maximized lies tangent to the magnetopause, and (2) the magnetopause surface near the subsolar point is almost spherical and thus \begin{document}Rs {R}_{\mathrm{s}} \end{document} is nearly equal to the radius of the magnetopause curvature. We create synthetic soft X-ray images by using the Open Geospace General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) global magnetohydrodynamic model, the galactic background, the instrument point spread function, and Poisson noise. We then apply the fast Fourier transform and Gaussian low-pass filters to the synthetic images to remove noise and obtain accurate look angles for the soft X-ray peaks. From the filtered images, we calculate \begin{document}Rs {R}_{\mathrm{s}} \end{document} and its accuracy for different LEXI locations, look directions, and solar wind densities by using the OpenGGCM subsolar magnetopause location as ground truth. Our method estimates \begin{document}Rs {R}_{\mathrm{s}} \end{document} with an accuracy of \begin{document}10  cm−3 {10\;\mathrm{c}\mathrm{m}}^{-3} \end{document}. The accuracy improves for greater solar wind densities and during southward interplanetary magnetic fields. The method captures the magnetopause motion during southward interplanetary magnetic field turnings. Consequently, the technique will enable quantitative analysis of the magnetopause motion and help reveal the dayside reconnection modes for dynamic solar wind conditions. This technique will support the LEXI and SMILE missions in achieving their scientific objectives

    Supplementary Figures S1 to S11 from Allosteric PI3Kα Inhibition Overcomes On-target Resistance to Orthosteric Inhibitors Mediated by Secondary <i>PIK3CA</i> Mutations

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    Supplementary Figure S1: PI3K pathway activity in selected cases with acquired PTEN alteration. Supplementary Figure S2. Validation of AKT constructs expression in T47D cells. Supplementary Figure S3. AKT activating mutations confer resistance to PI3Ka inhibitors. Supplementary Figure S4: Free energy calculations predict resistance to orthosteric PI3K inhibitors due to specific double PIK3CA mutants. Supplementary Figure S5: Free energy perturbation predicts reduced binding of orthosteric PI3K inhibitors to double mutants. Supplementary Figure S6. Expression of PIK3CA mutations in T47D cells. Supplementary Figure S7. MCF7 cells expressing W780R or Q859H double mutants show differential response to PIK3CA orthosteric inhibitors. Supplementary Figure S8: Chemical structure of RLY-2608. Supplementary Figure S9: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assay. Supplementary Figure S10. Alpelisib shows reduced potency of downstream signaling inhibition in the presence of W780R or Q859H/K. Supplementary Figure S11. T47D cells expressing I817F or E726K double mutants do not show a differential response to inavolisib (A) or RLY-2608 (B).</p

    Evidence of pair production of longitudinally polarised vector bosons and study of CP properties in ZZ → 4ℓ events with the ATLAS detector at s = 13 TeV