109 research outputs found

    MiR193a Modulation and Podocyte Phenotype

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    Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1)-miR193a axis has been reported to play a role in the maintenance of podocyte homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed transcription factors relevant to miR193a in human podocytes and their effects on podocytes\u27 molecular phenotype. The motif scan of the miR193a gene provided information about transcription factors, including YY1, WT1, Sox2, and VDR-RXR heterodimer, which could potentially bind to the miR193a promoter region to regulate miR193a expression. All structure models of these transcription factors and the tertiary structures of the miR193a promoter region were generated and refined using computational tools. The DNA-protein complexes of the miR193a promoter region and transcription factors were created using a docking approach. To determine the modulatory role of miR193a on APOL1 mRNA, the structural components of APOL1 3\u27 UTR and miR193a-5p were studied. Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations validated interactions between miR193a and YY1/WT1/Sox2/VDR/APOL1 3\u27 UTR region. Undifferentiated podocytes (UPDs) displayed enhanced miR193a, YY1, and Sox2 but attenuated WT1, VDR, and APOL1 expressions, whereas differentiated podocytes (DPDs) exhibited attenuated miR193a, YY1, and Sox2 but increased WT1, VDR, APOL1 expressions. Inhibition of miR193a in UPDs enhanced the expression of APOL1 as well as of podocyte molecular markers; on the other hand, DPD-transfected with miR193a plasmid showed downing of APOL1 as well as podocyte molecular markers suggesting a causal relationship between miR193a and podocyte molecular markers. Silencing of YY1 and Sox2 in UPDs decreased the expression of miR193a but increased the expression of VDR, and CD2AP (a marker of DPDs); in contrast, silencing of WT1 and VDR in DPDs enhanced the expression of miR193a, YY1, and Sox2. Since miR193a-downing by Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist not only enhanced the mRNA expression of APOL1 but also of podocyte differentiating markers, suggest that down-regulation of miR193a could be used to enhance the expression of podocyte differentiating markers as a therapeutic strategy

    Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood

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    It has been known for over a decade that a majority of men who self report as members of the Jewish priesthood (Cohanim) carry a characteristic Y chromosome haplotype termed the Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH). The CMH has since been used to trace putative Jewish ancestral origins of various populations. However, the limited number of binary and STR Y chromosome markers used previously did not provide the phylogenetic resolution needed to infer the number of independent paternal lineages that are encompassed within the Cohanim or their coalescence times. Accordingly, we have genotyped 75 binary markers and 12 Y-STRs in a sample of 215 Cohanim from diverse Jewish communities, 1,575 Jewish men from across the range of the Jewish Diaspora, and 2,099 non-Jewish men from the Near East, Europe, Central Asia, and India. While Cohanim from diverse backgrounds carry a total of 21 Y chromosome haplogroups, 5 haplogroups account for 79.5% of Cohanim Y chromosomes. The most frequent Cohanim lineage (46.1%) is marked by the recently reported P58 T->C mutation, which is prevalent in the Near East. Based on genotypes at 12 Y-STRs, we identify an extended CMH on the J-P58* background that predominates in both Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Cohanim and is remarkably absent in non-Jews. The estimated divergence time of this lineage based on 17 STRs is 3,190 ± 1,090 years. Notably, the second most frequent Cohanim lineage (J-M410*, 14.4%) contains an extended modal haplotype that is also limited to Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Cohanim and is estimated to be 4.2 ± 1.3 ky old. These results support the hypothesis of a common origin of the CMH in the Near East well before the dispersion of the Jewish people into separate communities, and indicate that the majority of contemporary Jewish priests descend from a limited number of paternal lineages

    Cell Lineage Analysis of the Mammalian Female Germline

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    Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote). We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development

    The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East

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    BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are highly partitioned across global geographic regions. A unique exception is the X haplogroup, which has a widespread global distribution without major regions of distinct localization. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined mitochondrial DNA sequence variation together with Y-chromosome-based haplogroup structure among the Druze, a religious minority with a unique socio-demographic history residing in the Near East. We observed a striking overall pattern of heterogeneous parental origins, consistent with Druze oral tradition, together with both a high frequency and a high diversity of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) X haplogroup within a confined regional subpopulation. Furthermore demographic modeling indicated low migration rates with nearby populations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings were enabled through the use of a paternal kindred based sampling approach, and suggest that the Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, and that the combination of a high frequency and diversity of the mtDNA X haplogroup signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age

    Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite loci in 78 individuals from four Jewish groups together with similar data on 321 individuals from 12 non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We find that the Jewish populations show a high level of genetic similarity to each other, clustering together in several types of analysis of population structure. Further, Bayesian clustering, neighbor-joining trees, and multidimensional scaling place the Jewish populations as intermediate between the non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These results support the view that the Jewish populations largely share a common Middle Eastern ancestry and that over their history they have undergone varying degrees of admixture with non-Jewish populations of European descent.</p