668 research outputs found

    Interconnection of government regulation and globalization

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    International experience shows that the successful economic and social development of a country depends on the proper organization of the public administration. It is difficult to overestimate the role of the state on the economy. The state regulates economic activity, protects businesses from the threat of monopoly, meets the needs of society for public goods, provides social protection and provides for national defense. At the same time, state intervention may in some cases significantly weaken market mechanisms and bring harm to the econom

    High resolution study of associated C IV absorption systems in NGC 5548

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    We present the results of a careful analysis of associated absorption systems toward NGC 5548. Most of the well resolved narrow components in the associated system, defined by the Lyman alpha, C IV and N V profiles, show velocity separation similar (to within 10~\kms) to the C IV doublet splitting. We estimate the chance probability of occurrence of such pairs with velocity separation equal to C IV doublet splitting to be 6×1036\times10^{-3}. Thus it is more likely that most of the narrow components are line-locked with C IV doublet splitting. This will mean that the radiative acceleration plays an important role in the kinematics of the absorbing clouds. We build grids of photoionization models and estimate the radiative acceleration due to all possible bound-bound transitions. We show that the clouds producing absorption have densities less than 109cm310^9 cm^{-3}, and are in the outer regions of the broad emission line region (BLR). We note that the clouds which are line-locked cannot produce appreciable optical depths of O VII and O VIII, and hence cannot be responsible for the observed ionized edges, in the soft X-ray. We discuss the implications of the presence of optically thin clouds in the outer regions of the BLR to the models of broad emission lines.Comment: 21 pages, latex (aasms4 style), incluedes 4 ps figures. To appear in Astrophysical Journa

    Audit of paediatric cardiac services in South Africa

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    Objective: To evaluate paediatric cardiac services in South Africa with respect to referral base, services provided and human resources.Study design: A descriptive study design was used. An audit of the referral base, personnel and activity of paediatric cardiac units throughout South Africa was conducted by means of a questionnaire. A specialist from each centre was asked to provide the relevant data. Where accurate data was not available, estimates were provided by practitioners within each centre.Results: All identified units participated in the audit. Three were private sector units while the other five were primarily public sector units. Twenty four paediatric cardiologists, equally distributed between public and private sector units, were practicing in the country as at end 2008, with a further eight paediatricians undergoing training in paediatric cardiology. This is significantly less than the 88 paediatric cardiologists required for the population of South Africa. Eight paediatric cardiac surgeons were operating predominantly on children in public hospitals and five in private institutions. An estimated 1370 operations for congenital heart disease were performed over a one year period, with 800 of these in the public sector. Extrapolating from accepted estimates of congenital heart disease incidence, this represents conservatively, less that 40% of operations required for the population. Additionally, only 26% of the estimated 114 simple transposition of great arteries born annually were operated on, indicating serious deficiencies in the ability to adequately detect and intervene in serious congenital heart disease presenting in the neonatal period. Conclusion: The infrastructure and resources to detect and manage heart disease in children in South Africa, particularly within the public sector, are grossly inadequate

    Optimal paediatric cardiac services in South Africa – what do we need?

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    Most children with congenital heart disease have a good outcome if treated appropriately, however the majority of children with heart disease in South Africa do not receive appropriate care. This is related to serious deficiencies in the mechanisms and training for early detection as well as a major shortage of skilled personnel to care for these children at all levels. Most public sector hospitals are unable to cope with the number of patients requiring surgery, mainly due to inadequate theatre time allocation and intensive care facilities. Key interventions to address these deficiencies include: 1. Strategies to improve both the training and the retention of all professionals involved in the care of congenital heart disease. 2. Programmes to increase awareness of both congenital and acquired heart disease in children among health care personnel. 3. Ensuring appropriate infrastructure and equipment designed for children with congenital heart disease are available. 4. Development of congenital heart surgery as an independent subspecialty with dedicated resources and personnel. 5. Dedicated intensive care facilities for paediatric heart surgery. In addition, development of appropriate patterns of referral, stimulation of research and positive private-public partnerships are all necessary to ensure that appropriate care is delivered

    Sustaining Critical Approaches to Translanguaging in Education: A Contextual Framework

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    Translanguaging remains a timely and important topic in bi/multilingual education. The most recent turn in translanguaging scholarship involves attention to translanguaging in context in response to critiques of translanguaging as a universally empowering educational practice. In this paper, seven early career translanguaging scholars propose a framework for researching translanguaging “in context,” drawing on the Douglas Fir Group\u27s (2016) transdisciplinary framework for language acquisition. Examining translanguaging in context entails paying attention to who in a classroom wields power, as a result of their greater proficiency in societally valued languages, their more “standard” ways of speaking these languages, their greater familiarity with academic literacies valued at school, and/or their more “legitimate” forms of translanguaging. In our framework for researching translanguaging in context, we propose three principles. The first principle is obvious: (1) not to do so apolitically. The other two principles describe a synergy between ethnographic research and teacher-researcher collaborative research: (2) ethnographic research can assess macro-level language ideologies and enacted language hegemonies at the micro- and meso levels, and (3) teacher-researcher collaborations must create and sustain inclusive, equitable classroom social orders and alternative academic norms different from the ones documented to occur in context if left by chance

    Trends in High-Risk HLA Susceptibility Genes Among Colorado Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

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    OBJECTIVE—Type 1 diabetes is associated with a wide spectrum of susceptibility and protective genotypes within the HLA class II system. It has been reported that adults diagnosed with youth-onset type 1 diabetes more recently have been found to have fewer classical high-risk HLA class II genotypes than those diagnosed several decades ago. We hypothesized that such temporal trends in the distribution of HLA-DR, DQ genotypes would be evident, and perhaps even stronger, among 5- to 17-year-old Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in Colorado between 1978 and 2004

    How is Binary Radio-Pulsars with Black Holes Population Rich?

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    Using "Scenario Machine" we have carried out population synthesis of radio pulsar with black hole binaries (BH+Psr) in context of the most wide assumptions about star mass loss during evolution, binary stars mass ratio distribution, kick velocity and envelope mass lost during collapse. Our purpose is to display that under any suppositional parameters of evolution scenario BH+Psr population have to be abundant in Galaxy. It is shown that in the all models including models evolved by Heger et al. (2002), Woosley et al. (2002), Heger et al. (2003) expected number of the black holes paired with radio pulsars is sufficient enough to discover such systems within the next few years.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, accepted to MNRA

    Ab-initio density-functional lattice-dynamics studies of ice

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    We present the results of first-principles computational studies of the dynamical properties of hexagonal ice using both the ab-initio pseudopotential method and the full-potential augmented plane-wave method. Properties obtained using both the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the meta-GGA in density-functional theory are compared. The lattice-dynamical properties of the structures are obtained using a finite-difference evaluation of the dynamical matrix and force-constant matrix from atomic forces. Phonon dispersion is evaluated by the direct determination of the force-constant matrix in supercells derived from the primitive molecule unit cells with the assumption that force constants are zero beyond the second molecular nearest neighbors. The k-dependent phonon frequencies are then obtained from the force-constant matrix and dispersion relations, and the Brillouin-zone integrated density of states is evaluated. The importance of phonon dispersion in the various regions of the phonon spectra is then assessed and compared to existing neutron-scattering data. Frozen-phonon calculations are used to compare phonon frequencies evaluated in both the GGA and meta-GGA