727 research outputs found

    BASE Jumping in the Lauterbrunnen Valley: A Retrospective Cohort Study from 2007 to 2016

    Get PDF
    Background: BASE jumping, and especially BASE jumping with the help of wingsuits, is considered one of the most dangerous airborne sports. The valley of Lauterbrunnen in Switzerland has become infamous for the large number of BASE jumps and the high rate of accidents and fatalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and mortality of BASE jumping, to determine the severity of injuries and injury patterns of BASE jumping accidents and to compare preclinical assessment with clinical diagnoses to detect under- or overtriage. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive cohort study covers a period of 10 years (2007–2016). The evaluation covered all BASE jumping incidents in the valley of Lauterbrunnen that required either a helicopter mission by the local HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service) company of Lauterbrunnen, Air Glaciers, or medical care in the regional hospital, the level I trauma centre or the medical practice of the local general practitioner. Besides demographic data, experience in BASE jumping and skydiving as well as BASE jumping technique(s) and details about the rescue missions were collected. The medical data focused on the severity of injuries, as expressed by the National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics (NACA) score in the prehospital assessment as well as the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) retrieved from the clinical records in the hospital or medical practice setting. Results: The patients were predominantly young, experienced male BASE jumpers. Morbidity (injury risk) ranged from 0.05% to 0.2%, and fatality risk from 0.02% to 0.08%. Undertriage was low, with only two cases. Overtriage was significant, with 73.2% of all NACA 4–6 cases not qualifying for major trauma. Conclusions: BASE jumping remains a high-risk sport and is associated with significant rates of injuries and fatalities. Comparison with previous studies indicated that the injury rate may have decreased, but the fatality rate had not. In this known BASE jumping environment, prehospital assessment appears to be good, as we found a low undertriage rate. The high overtriage rate might be an expression of physicians’ awareness of high-velocity trauma mechanisms and possible deceleration injuries

    Determinants and clinical outcomes of patients who refused anticoagulation: findings from the global GARFIELD-AF registry

    No full text
    Objective There is a substantial incidence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) not receiving anticoagulation. The reasons for not receiving anticoagulation are generally attributed to clinician’s choice, however, a proportion of AF patients refuse anticoagulation. The aim of our study was to investigate factors associated with patient refusal of anticoagulation and the clinical outcomes in these patients.Methods Our study population comprised patients in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD-AF) registry with CHA2DS2-VASc≥2. A logistic regression was developed with predictors of patient anticoagulation refusal identified by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator methodology. Patient demographics, medical and cardiovascular history, lifestyle factors, vital signs (body mass index, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure), type of AF and care setting at diagnosis were considered as potential predictors. We also investigated 2-year outcomes of non-haemorrhagic stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding and all-cause mortality in patients who refused versus patients who received and patients who did not receive anticoagulation for other reasons.Results Out of 43 154 AF patients, who were at high risk of stroke, 13 283 (30.8%) did not receive anticoagulation at baseline. The reason for not receiving anticoagulation was unavailable for 38.7% (5146/13 283); of the patients with a known reason for not receiving anticoagulation, 12.5% (1014/8137) refused anticoagulation. Diagnosis in primary care/general practitioner, Asian ethnicity and presence of vascular disease were strongly associated with a higher risk of patient refusal of anticoagulation. Patient refusal of anticoagulation was associated with a higher risk of non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.16 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.76)) but lower all-cause mortality (aHR 0.59 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.80)) compared with patients who received anticoagulation. The GARFIELD-AF mortality score corroborated this result.Conclusion The data suggest patient refusal of anticoagulation is a missed opportunity to prevent AF-related stroke. Further research is required to understand the patient profile and mortality outcome of patients who refuse anticoagulation

    Strengthening Altitude Knowledge: A Delphi Study to Define Minimum Knowledge of Altitude Illness for Laypersons Traveling to High Altitude

    Full text link
    Introduction: A lack of knowledge among laypersons about the hazards of high-altitude exposure contributes to morbidity and mortality from acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) among high-altitude travelers. There are guidelines regarding the recognition, prevention, and treatment of acute-altitude illness for experts, but essential knowledge for laypersons traveling to high altitudes has not been defined. We sought expert consensus on the essential knowledge required for people planning to travel to high altitudes. Methods: The Delphi method was used. The panel consisted of two moderators, a core expert group and a plenary expert group. The moderators made a preliminary list of statements defining the desired minimum knowledge for laypersons traveling to high altitudes, based on the relevant literature. These preliminary statements were then reviewed, supplemented, and modified by a core expert group. A list of 33 statements was then presented to a plenary group of experts in successive rounds. Results: It took three rounds to reach a consensus. Of the 10 core experts invited, 7 completed all the rounds. Of the 76 plenary experts, 41 (54%) participated in Round 1, and of these 41 a total of 32 (78%) experts completed all three rounds. The final list contained 28 statements in 5 categories (altitude physiology, sleeping at altitude, AMS, HACE, and HAPE). This list represents an expert consensus on the desired minimum knowledge for laypersons planning high-altitude travel. Conclusion: Using the Delphi method, the STrengthening Altitude Knowledge initiative yielded a set of 28 statements representing essential learning objectives for laypersons who plan to travel to high altitudes. This list could be used to develop educational interventions

    BASE Jumping in the Lauterbrunnen Valley: A Retrospective Cohort Study from 2007 to 2016.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND BASE jumping, and especially BASE jumping with the help of wingsuits, is considered one of the most dangerous airborne sports. The valley of Lauterbrunnen in Switzerland has become infamous for the large number of BASE jumps and the high rate of accidents and fatalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and mortality of BASE jumping, to determine the severity of injuries and injury patterns of BASE jumping accidents and to compare preclinical assessment with clinical diagnoses to detect under- or overtriage. METHODS This retrospective, descriptive cohort study covers a period of 10 years (2007-2016). The evaluation covered all BASE jumping incidents in the valley of Lauterbrunnen that required either a helicopter mission by the local HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service) company of Lauterbrunnen, Air Glaciers, or medical care in the regional hospital, the level I trauma centre or the medical practice of the local general practitioner. Besides demographic data, experience in BASE jumping and skydiving as well as BASE jumping technique(s) and details about the rescue missions were collected. The medical data focused on the severity of injuries, as expressed by the National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics (NACA) score in the prehospital assessment as well as the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) retrieved from the clinical records in the hospital or medical practice setting. RESULTS The patients were predominantly young, experienced male BASE jumpers. Morbidity (injury risk) ranged from 0.05% to 0.2%, and fatality risk from 0.02% to 0.08%. Undertriage was low, with only two cases. Overtriage was significant, with 73.2% of all NACA 4-6 cases not qualifying for major trauma. CONCLUSIONS BASE jumping remains a high-risk sport and is associated with significant rates of injuries and fatalities. Comparison with previous studies indicated that the injury rate may have decreased, but the fatality rate had not. In this known BASE jumping environment, prehospital assessment appears to be good, as we found a low undertriage rate. The high overtriage rate might be an expression of physicians' awareness of high-velocity trauma mechanisms and possible deceleration injuries
    • …
    corecore