160 research outputs found

    Geriatric impairments are associated with reduced quality of life and physical function in older patients with cancer receiving radiotherapy - A prospective observational study

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    Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) and function are important outcomes for older adults with cancer. We aimed to assess differences in trends in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) during radiotherapy (RT) between (1) groups with curative or palliative treatment intent and (2) groups defined according to the number of geriatric impairments. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study including patients aged ≥65 years receiving curative or palliative RT was conducted. Geriatric assessment (GA) was performed before RT, and cut-offs for impairments within each domain were defined. Patients were grouped according to the number of geriatric impairments: 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥ 4. Our primary outcomes, global QoL and physical function (PF), were assessed by The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC) (QLQ-C30) at baseline, RT completion, and two, eight, and sixteen weeks later. Differences in trends in outcomes between the groups were assessed by linear mixed models. Results: 301 patients were enrolled, mean age was 73.6 years, 53.8% received curative RT. Patients receiving palliative RT reported significantly worse global QoL and PF compared to the curative group. The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥ 4 geriatric impairments was 16.6%, 22.7%, 16.9%, 16.3% and 27.5%, respectively. Global QoL and PF gradually decreased with an increasing number of impairments. These group differences remained stable from baseline throughout follow-up without any clinically significant changes for any of the outcomes. Discussion: Increasing number of geriatric impairments had a profound negative impact on global QoL and PF, but no further decline was observed for any group or outcome, indicating that RT was mainly well tolerated. Thus, geriatric impairments per se should not be reasons for withholding RT. GA is key to identifying vulnerable patients in need of supportive measures, which may have the potential to improve treatment tolerance.publishedVersio

    Lugol's solution and Gentian violet eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in skin wound infections

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    The study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Lugol's solution 5% and Gentian violet 1% against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm in vivo. The bactericidal efficacy for treatment of MRSA-biofilm skin wound infection was tested in a murine model. Luciferase-tagged S. aureus Xen31, a MRSA-strain derived from S. aureus ATCC-3359130, was used for infection. Wounds were made in the skin of mice and infected with MRSA. The mice were treated with Lugol's solution and Gentian violet. Application of the antimicrobial agents started 24 hours post infection and was repeated daily for five-days. The antimicrobial effect on the biofilm bacteria was evaluated by measuring bioluminescence from MRSA daily for seven-days. Lugol's solution and Gentian violet showed a significant reduction in luminescent signals from the first assessment day to all subsequent days (P < .001). Lugol's solution and Gentian violet effectively eradicated MRSA in biofilm in vivo and could be alternatives or in addition to topical antibiotics when MRSA-biofilm wound infection is suspected

    Life satisfaction among individuals with opioid use disorder receiving extended-release naltrexone: A 12-week randomized controlled trial and a 36-week follow-up

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    Introduction Life satisfaction (LS) in opioid-dependent individuals is lower than in the general population. This study aimed to explore changes in LS during short- and long-term treatment with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX). Methods This open-label 12-week clinical trial randomized 159 participants to either monthly XR-NTX or daily buprenorphine-naloxone (BP-NLX). In a subsequent 36-week follow-up study on XR-NTX, participants either continued or switched to XR-NTX. The study collected data on the Temporary Satisfaction with Life (TSWL) and illicit opioid use every fourth week. The research team assessed changes in TSWL by a linear mixed model and growth mixture model. The study assessed relationship between opioid use and TSWL by a linear mixed model. Results Change in LS differed significantly between the groups in both study periods. TSWL scores were significantly higher in the XR-NTX group at week 4 (p = 0.013) and week 8 (p = 0.002). In the follow-up period, the groups were significantly different only at week 16 (p = 0.031) and week 48 (p = 0.025), with the higher TSWL scores in the XR-NTX continued group. Increase in opioid use by one day was associated with a 0.12 point lower mean TSWL score. Both study periods identified groups with low and high LS levels. In the trial period, the TSWL scores exhibited a significant increase from baseline to week 12 in both groups, p < 0.001 and p = 0.011 in the low and high LS group, respectively. In the follow-up period, the TSWL scores exhibited a significant increase from week 16 to week 48 (p = 0.003) in the high LS group, while the low LS group showed persistently lower values throughout that period. Conclusions XR-NTX treatment given once monthly is associated with higher LS, as measured by TSWL, compared to daily use of BP-NLX. The majority of the participants had relatively low TSWL scores and did not report any change in TSWL during longer-term treatment. The study found a significant association between more frequent illicit opioid use and a low or decreased LS during follow-up

    Does Elevated Alcohol Consumption Delay the Diagnostic Assessment of Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults?

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    ntroduction: The time from symptom debut to assessment of cognitive impairment (TSA) is usually substantial, and many factors can influence the length of this interval. Our objective was to discern whether elevated alcohol consumption is associated with TSA. Methods: Alcohol consumption was measured among 3,236 older Norwegians assessed for cognitive impairment. Elevated consumption was defined as drinking 4–7 times a week. TSA was defined as the number of months between symptom debut and assessment. The association between alcohol consumption and TSA was examined with a multiple regression analysis controlled for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Results: Mean (SD) and median TSA were 34.8 (35.8) and 24.0 months, respectively. Elevated alcohol consumption was not associated with TSA. Longer TSA was associated with being male, having a high education level, being retired or unemployed, being single, having low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Personal Activities of Daily Living (PADL), having high subsyndrome scores of depression or agitation on The Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Questionnaire (NPI-Q), or having a spouse/cohabitant as the designated next of kin. Conclusion: This study indicates that elevated alcohol consumption does not influence TSA. Possible explanations are discussed, but further research is needed to determine the effect of alcohol definitively. We did identify other novel characteristics associated with TSA which may be important in minimizing the risk of delayed cognitive assessments and should be kept in mind when considering assessment

    Geriatric impairments are associated with reduced quality of life and physical function in older patients with cancer receiving radiotherapy - A prospective observational study

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    Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) and function are important outcomes for older adults with cancer. We aimed to assess differences in trends in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) during radiotherapy (RT) between (1) groups with curative or palliative treatment intent and (2) groups defined according to the number of geriatric impairments. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study including patients aged ≥65 years receiving curative or palliative RT was conducted. Geriatric assessment (GA) was performed before RT, and cut-offs for impairments within each domain were defined. Patients were grouped according to the number of geriatric impairments: 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥ 4. Our primary outcomes, global QoL and physical function (PF), were assessed by The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC) (QLQ-C30) at baseline, RT completion, and two, eight, and sixteen weeks later. Differences in trends in outcomes between the groups were assessed by linear mixed models. Results: 301 patients were enrolled, mean age was 73.6 years, 53.8% received curative RT. Patients receiving palliative RT reported significantly worse global QoL and PF compared to the curative group. The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥ 4 geriatric impairments was 16.6%, 22.7%, 16.9%, 16.3% and 27.5%, respectively. Global QoL and PF gradually decreased with an increasing number of impairments. These group differences remained stable from baseline throughout follow-up without any clinically significant changes for any of the outcomes. Discussion: Increasing number of geriatric impairments had a profound negative impact on global QoL and PF, but no further decline was observed for any group or outcome, indicating that RT was mainly well tolerated. Thus, geriatric impairments per se should not be reasons for withholding RT. GA is key to identifying vulnerable patients in need of supportive measures, which may have the potential to improve treatment tolerance

    Does Elevated Alcohol Consumption Delay the Diagnostic Assessment of Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults?

    No full text
    Introduction: The time from symptom debut to assessment of cognitive impairment (TSA) is usually substantial, and many factors can influence the length of this interval. Our objective was to discern whether elevated alcohol consumption is associated with TSA. Methods: Alcohol consumption was measured among 3,236 older Norwegians assessed for cognitive impairment. Elevated consumption was defined as drinking 4–7 times a week. TSA was defined as the number of months between symptom debut and assessment. The association between alcohol consumption and TSA was examined with a multiple regression analysis controlled for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Results: Mean (SD) and median TSA were 34.8 (35.8) and 24.0 months, respectively. Elevated alcohol consumption was not associated with TSA. Longer TSA was associated with being male, having a high education level, being retired or unemployed, being single, having low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Personal Activities of Daily Living (PADL), having high subsyndrome scores of depression or agitation on The Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Questionnaire (NPI-Q), or having a spouse/cohabitant as the designated next of kin. Conclusion: This study indicates that elevated alcohol consumption does not influence TSA. Possible explanations are discussed, but further research is needed to determine the effect of alcohol definitively. We did identify other novel characteristics associated with TSA which may be important in minimizing the risk of delayed cognitive assessments and should be kept in mind when considering assessment

    The association between geriatric treatment and 30-day readmission risk among medical inpatients aged ≥75 years with multimorbidity

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    Background: Readmission to hospital is frequent among older patients and reported as a post-discharge adverse outcome. The effect of treatment in a geriatric ward for acutely admitted older patients on mortality and function is well established, but less is known about the possible influence of such treatment on the risk of readmission, particularly in the oldest and most vulnerable patients. Our aim was to assess the risk for early readmission for multimorbid patients > 75 years treated in a geriatric ward compared to medical wards and to identify risk factors for 30-day readmissions. Methods: Prospective cohort study of patients acutely admitted to a medical department at a Norwegian regional hospital. Eligible patients were community-dwelling, multimorbid, receiving home care services, and aged 75+. Patients were consecutively included in the period from 1 April to 31 October 2012. Clinical data were retrieved from the referral letter and medical records. Results: We included 227 patients with a mean (SD) age of 86.0 (5.7) years, 134 (59%) were female and 59 (26%) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge. We found no statistically significant difference in readmission rate between patients treated in a geriatric ward versus other medical wards. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, lower age (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.95 (0.91-0.99) per year), female gender (2.17 (1.15-4.00)) and higher MMSE score (1.03 (1.00-1.06) per point) were significant risk factors for readmission. Conclusions: Lower age, female gender and higher cognitive function were the main risk factors for 30-day readmission to hospital among old patients with multimorbidity. We found no impact of geriatric care on the readmission rate

    The Course of Depressive Symptoms Over 36 Months in 696 Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents

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    Objectives: To investigate the course of depressive symptoms in newly admitted nursing home (NH) residents and how resident characteristics were associated with the symptoms. To identify groups of residents following the same symptom trajectory. Design: An observational, multicenter, longitudinal study over 36 months with 7 biannual assessments. Setting and participants: Representing 47 Norwegian NHs, 696 residents were included at admission to a NH. Methods: Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). We selected severity of dementia, functional impairment, physical health, pain, use of antidepressants, age, and sex as covariates. Time trend in CSDD score was assessed by a linear mixed model adjusting for covariates. Next, a growth mixture model was estimated to investigate whether there were groups of residents following distinct trajectories in CSDD scores. We estimated a nominal regression model to assess whether the covariates at admission were associated to group membership. Results: There was a nonlinear trend in CSDD score. More severe dementia, a lower level of functioning, poorer physical health, more pain, use of antidepressants, and younger age at admission were associated with higher CSDD scores. Growth mixture model identified 4 groups: (1) persistent mild symptoms (32.6%), (2) persistent moderate symptoms (50.8%), (3) increasing symptoms (5.1%), and (4) severe but decreasing symptoms (11.6%). A lower level of functioning, poorer physical health, more pain, use of antidepressants, and younger age at admission were associated with higher odds for belonging to the severe but decreasing symptoms group compared with the persistent mild symptoms group. Conclusions and implications: Most NH residents were in trajectory groups with persistent mild or moderate depressive symptoms. Residents with more severe dementia, lower levels of functioning, poor physical health, severe pain, younger age at admittance, and who are using antidepressants should be monitored closely and systematically with respect to depression. Taking actions toward a more personalized treatment for depression in NHs is a priority and should be investigated in future studies

    Predictors of upgrading from low-grade cancer at prostatectomy in men with biparametric magnetic resonance imaging

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    Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density has previously been identified as a predictor of histological upgrading at radical prostatectomy, but how information from pre-treatment biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) contributes needs further clarification. The objective of this register-based study was to identify predictors of upgrading at prostatectomy in men with Grade group (GG) 1 and pre-treatment bpMRI. Material and methods: This single-center study included men with GG 1 cancer on prediagnostic biopsy, who underwent bpMRI and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between March 2014 and September 2019. We estimated logistic regression models to explore predictors for upgrading. The explored potential predictors were age, PSA density, tumor stage and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score (dichotomised 1-3 versus 4-5). Results: Upgrading was observed in 56% (73/130) of the men. PSA density was the only significant predictor for upgrading (unadjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2; 2.4 adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2; 2.5). The probability of upgrading was lower for men with a PIRADS 1-3 than for PIRADS 4-5, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2; 1.1, p = 0.082). Among men with PI-RADS 1-3, the probability increased with increasing PSA density (p = 0.036). With PI-RADS 4-5 the probability of upgrading was high over the entire PSA density range. Conclusions: PSA density is a clinically important factor to predict upgrading from GG1 when bpMRI shows PI-RADS 1-3. In men with PI-RADS 4-5 on bpMRI, the probability of an undetected GG 2-5 cancer is high regardless of the PSA density.publishedVersio

    Experience Measures after Radical Prostatectomy: A Register-Based Study Evaluating the Association between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Quality of Information

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    Patient-reported data are important for quality assurance and improvement. Our main aim was to investigate the association between patient-reported symptoms among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and their perceived quality of information before treatment. In this single-centre study, 235 men treated with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between August 2017 and June 2019, responded to a follow-up questionnaire 20–42 months after surgery. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between patient-reported symptoms, measured with Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP), and the perceived quality of information. Adverse effects were defined as a higher EPIC score at follow-up than at baseline. The majority (77%) rated the general information as good. Higher EPIC-CP at follow-up was significantly associated with lower perceived quality of information, also after adjustment for age and level of education (bivariate model OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07; 1.16,
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