66 research outputs found

    Možnosti zvyšování efektivnosti veřejného sektoru v podmínkách krize veřejných financí II

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    Title in English: Improving Public Sector Efficiency in Times of Public Finance Crisis This publication is the summary of results of free selected PhD theses prepared by students from ESF MU, dealing with two very actual topics: – the analysis of impact from introducing heath care fees in the Czech Republic (Krutilova), – efficiency of taxation – administrative and compliance costs (Pompura, Cizmarik)

    The Online Identification of the Behaviour of Pollutants inside the Tunnel Tube

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    A tunnel tube is a relatively small space that allows for the accumulation of gaseous and liquid substances containing harmful substances. Given this fact, a ventilation system is the most critical component of a tunnel’s technological equipment, greatly influencing its reliability and safe operation. The dynamic behaviour of pollutants in the tunnel tube is characterized by a significant stochastic component and changing parameters over time due to pressure, airflow, and atmospheric condition changes. This work addresses the issue of modelling individual parts of the tunnel tube for optimal tunnel ventilation control. It is necessary to create a model of a controlled system that is used for predicting process variables to calculate optimal control action. By using recursive identification methods in conjunction with a predictive controller, the proposed concept can be applied to numerous similar applications

    Civil Society Versus Local Self‐Governments and Central Government in V4 Countries

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    In the new EU member states, there are very few studies analyzing the role of central and local self-governments in co-design processes. Nevertheless, such studies are particularly important as co-creation takes place in the context of former post-communist countries where central power reigned supreme and cooperation with the civil sector was very limited. This article aims to enrich the existing debate on the role of central and local self-government in the context of co-creation at the local level—specifically to map the extent to which local and central governments in the Visegrad Four region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) support local participatory budgeting initiatives as one of the most important forms of co-creation. The findings are very interesting, as each country has its situation and specificities. The (positive but also negative) role of the central state is limited but not invisible, except in the Czech Republic. The relations between civil society (and formal NGOs) and local self-governments are somewhat more similar within the countries studied. At the beginning of participatory budgeting, the civil sector and NGOs served as initiators and local self-governments as followers. However, this position has been steadily shifting towards the dominance of local self-governments and the marginalization of the civil society’s role

    Four Cases, the Same Story? The Roles of the Prime Ministers in the V4 Countries During the Covid-19 Crisis

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    The goal of this paper is to deliver a comparative analysis of the behaviors and statements of the PMs in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, using the concept of adaptive leaderships as a base for analysis. We employed the usage of four fundamental skills proposed by Glover, Friedman and Jones (2002) and of five fundamental recommendations proposed by Macpherson and ‘t Hart (2020) to assess the behaviors and relevant statements of the PMs of the four analyzed countries during the time of the pandemic. The fact that all four analyzed PMs did not employ many adaptive leadership skills and recommendations may serve as one of the possible explanations for the very problematic results in fighting COVID-19 during the second phase of the pandemic, when especially the Czech Republic and Slovakia belonged to the most affected countries. The costs of such limited competence are borne by citizens and businesses

    A multinational Delphi consensus to end the COVID-19 public health threat

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    Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic, and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1,2. This Delphi study convened a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, NGO, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global public health threat. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry, and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of ragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches1, while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach2 that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust, and engage communities3 in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by organisations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help bring this public health threat to an end

    A multinational Delphi consensus to end the COVID-19 public health threat

    No full text
    Abstract Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic 1,2 . Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global threat to public health. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of fragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches 1 , while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach 2 that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust and engage communities 3 in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by 184 organizations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end

    A multinational Delphi consensus to end the COVID-19 public health threat

    No full text
    Abstract Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic . Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global threat to public health. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of fragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches , while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust and engage communities in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by 184 organizations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end

    Editorial

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    This short editorial proposes a specific topic for comprehensive research in COVID-19 in the CEE area, namely the role of politicians and politics during the pandemic. The text includes three short country case studies (Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia), describing different aspects of the politics/political fighting relationship and the COVID-19 pandemic. The experts’ arguments suggest that the “motto of the day” should be working together and not fighting each other. However, nothing (“almost nothing”) like this is visible in our region – or at lease in our three case studies, the only positive aspect from this point of view is the joint call of all parliamentary group leaders for vaccination in Slovenia. By its content, the editorial calls for comprehensive research on the aims of the current antagonistic situation and possible actions

    The Low Demand for Public Administration Programs in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: What May be Behind it?

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    The importance of public administration (PA) education and training is obvious, any effective public administration system needs an influx of a new and well-educated workforce. Compared to the (relatively) better situation in other Central and Eastern European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia represent a very specific case – the falling number of students in PA programs threatens the existence of the only programs with international accreditation (those at Masaryk University Brno and Matej Bel University in Banska Bystrica). The aim of this paper was to investigate the reasons why so few students apply and enroll in these EAPAA-accredited programs. Qualitative research is used to achieve this goal. In the opinion of the program chairs and our secondary analysis, there are multiple factors behind the very low level of demand which critically threatens the existence of the best master programs in the countries studied. A very specific issue that appears to be unique for both countries is free public university education with unregulated demand. Such an environment, combined with the performance- based funding of public universities and other higher education institutions, where the number of students is a decisive factor in the amount of the public grant to the university, generates an oversupply of places offered to secondary school graduates. The role of other potential barriers for the interest to study public administration is catalyzed by the ‘oversupply’ conditions. The questionnaire, the statements of program chairs, and our secondary analysis confirm that there is a role to be played by monitoring other potential barriers — the fact that programs are run in economics faculties, limited trust in politicians, government and public administration, the system of access to the civil service and salary levels in the public sector.</p

    FOUR CASES, THE SAME STORY? THE ROLES OF THE PRIME MINISTERS IN THE V4 COUNTRIES DURING THE COVID-19 CRISIS

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    The goal of this paper is to deliver a comparative analysis of the behaviors and statements of the PMs in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, using the concept of adaptive leaderships as a base for analysis. We employed the usage of four fundamental skills proposed by Glover, Friedman and Jones (2002) and of five fundamental recommendations proposed by Macpherson and ‘t Hart (2020) to assess the behaviors and relevant statements of the PMs of the four analyzed countries during the time of the pandemic. The fact that all four analyzed PMs did not employ many adaptive leadership skills and recommendations may serve as one of the possible explanations for the very problematic results in fighting COVID-19 during the second phase of the pandemic, when especially the Czech Republic and Slovakia belonged to the most affected countries. The costs of such limited competence are borne by citizens and businesses
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