159 research outputs found

    CKD, Brain Atrophy, and White Matter Lesion Volume: The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and DementiaPlain-Language summary

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    Rationale &amp; Objective: Chronic kidney disease, defined by albuminuria and/or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), has been reported to be associated with brain atrophy and/or higher white matter lesion volume (WMLV), but there are few large-scale population-based studies assessing this issue. This study aimed to examine the associations between the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR levels and brain atrophy and WMLV in a large-scale community-dwelling older population of Japanese. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting &amp; Participants: A total of 8,630 dementia-free community-dwelling Japanese aged greater than or equal to 65 years underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and screening examination of health status in 2016-2018. Exposures: UACR and eGFR levels. Outcomes: The total brain volume (TBV)-to-intracranial volume (ICV) ratio (TBV/ICV), the regional brain volume-to-TBV ratio, and the WMLV-to-ICV ratio (WMLV/ICV). Analytical Approach: The associations of UACR and eGFR levels with the TBV/ICV, the regional brain volume-to-TBV ratio, and the WMLV/ICV were assessed by using an analysis of covariance. Results: Higher UACR levels were significantly associated with lower TBV/ICV and higher geometric mean values of the WMLV/ICV (P for trend = 0.009 and <0.001, respectively). Lower eGFR levels were significantly associated with lower TBV/ICV, but not clearly associated with WMLV/ICV. In addition, higher UACR levels, but not lower eGFR, were significantly associated with lower temporal cortex volume-to-TBV ratio and lower hippocampal volume-to-TBV ratio. Limitations: Cross-sectional study, misclassification of UACR or eGFR levels, generalizability to other ethnicities and younger populations, and residual confounding factors. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that higher UACR was associated with brain atrophy, especially in the temporal cortex and hippocampus, and with increased WMLV. These findings suggest that chronic kidney disease is involved in the progression of morphologic brain changes associated with cognitive impairment

    Prediction of heading date, culm length, and biomass from canopy-height-related parameters derived from time-series UAV observations of rice

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    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are powerful tools for monitoring crops for high-throughput phenotyping. Time-series aerial photography of fields can record the whole process of crop growth. Canopy height (CH), which is vertical plant growth, has been used as an indicator for the evaluation of lodging tolerance and the prediction of biomass and yield. However, there have been few attempts to use UAV-derived time-series CH data for field testing of crop lines. Here we provide a novel framework for trait prediction using CH data in rice. We generated UAV-based digital surface models of crops to extract CH data of 30 Japanese rice cultivars in 2019, 2020, and 2021. CH-related parameters were calculated in a non-linear time-series model as an S-shaped plant growth curve. The maximum saturation CH value was the most important predictor for culm length. The time point at the maximum CH contributed to the prediction of days to heading, and was able to predict stem and leaf weight and aboveground weight, possibly reflecting the association of biomass with duration of vegetative growth. These results indicate that the CH-related parameters acquired by UAV can be useful as predictors of traits typically measured by hand


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    A child with mitochondrial DNA deletion presenting diabetes mellitus as an initial symptom

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    Children with mitochondrial disease may present with diabetes mellitus (DM) without autoimmune antibodies as an initial manifestation, however, it is difficult to make a precise diagnosis in early stages. We present a 2-year-old male patient with mitochondrial disease who showed insulin-dependent DM without autoimmune antibodies as an initial symptom. He later presented with progressive motor deterioration, hearing disability, ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, and retinitis pigmentosa at 6 years and 6 months. T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging revealed high signal lesions in the subcortical white matter, anterior thalamus, globus pallidus, and brainstem. MR spectroscopy showed elevated lactate and low N-acetylaspartate in the affected white matter. Genetic analysis revealed a single large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletion at 7117-13994, leading to a diagnosis of mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome associated with insulin-dependent DM. Although the frequency of DM in pediatric mitochondrial disease is low, mitochondrial disease, especially due to mitochondrial DNA deletion, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in those with insulin-dependent DM without autoimmune antibodies, and MRI and MR spectroscopy are recommended for an early diagnosis

    Association of variations in HLA class II and other loci with susceptibility to EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma

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    Lung adenocarcinoma driven by somatic EGFR mutations is more prevalent in East Asians (30-50%) than in European/Americans (10-20%). Here we investigate genetic factors underlying the risk of this disease by conducting a genome-wide association study, followed by two validation studies, in 3,173 Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and 15,158 controls. Four loci, 5p15.33 (TERT), 6p21.3 (BTNL2), 3q28 (TP63) and 17q24.2 (BPTF), previously shown to be strongly associated with overall lung adenocarcinoma risk in East Asians, were re-discovered as loci associated with a higher susceptibility to EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, two additional loci, HLA class II at 6p21.32 (rs2179920; P =5.1 × 10(-17), per-allele OR=1.36) and 6p21.1 (FOXP4) (rs2495239; P=3.9 × 10(-9), per-allele OR=1.19) were newly identified as loci associated with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. This study indicates that multiple genetic factors underlie the risk of lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations


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    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

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    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field