1,984 research outputs found

    Double-Layered Perovskite Oxyfluoride Cathodes with High Capacity Involving O–O Bond Formation for Fluoride-Ion Batteries

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    Developing electrochemical high-energy storage systems is of crucial importance toward a green and sustainable energy supply. A promising candidate is fluoride-ion batteries (FIBs), which can deliver a much higher volumetric energy density than lithium-ion batteries. However, typical metal fluoride cathodes with conversion-type reactions cause a low-rate capability. Recently, layered perovskite oxides and oxyfluorides, such as LaSrMnO4 and Sr3Fe2O5F2, have been reported to exhibit relatively high rate performance and cycle stability compared to typical metal fluoride cathodes with conversion-type reactions, but their discharge capacities (∼118 mA h/g) are lower than those of typical cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we show that double-layered perovskite oxyfluoride La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7−δF2 exhibits (de) intercalation of two fluoride ions to rock-salt slabs and further (de) intercalation of excess fluoride ions to the perovskite layer, leading to a reversible capacity of 200 mA h/g. The additional fluoride-ion intercalation leads to the formation of O–O bond in the structure for charge compensation (i.e., anion redox). These results highlight the layered perovskite oxyfluorides as a new class of active materials for the construction of high-performance FIBs

    Targeting the chromatin effector Pygo2 promotes cytotoxic T cell responses and overcomes immunotherapyresistance in prostate cancer.

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    The noninflamed microenvironment in prostate cancer represents a barrier to immunotherapy. Genetic alterations underlying cancer cell-intrinsic oncogenic signaling are increasingly appreciated for their role in shaping the immune landscape. Recently, we identified Pygopus 2 (PYGO2) as the driver oncogene for the amplicon at 1q21.3 in prostate cancer. Here, using transgenic mouse models of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, we found that Pygo2 deletion decelerated tumor progression, diminished metastases, and extended survival. Pygo2 loss augmented the activation and infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and sensitized tumor cells to T cell killing. Mechanistically, Pygo2 orchestrated a p53/Sp1/Kit/Ido1 signaling network to foster a microenvironment hostile to CTLs. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Pygo2 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapies using immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), adoptive cell transfer, or agents inhibiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In human prostate cancer samples, Pygo2 expression was inversely correlated with the infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Analysis of the ICB clinical data showed association between high PYGO2 level and worse outcome. Together, our results highlight a potential path to improve immunotherapy using Pygo2-targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer.</p

    Analysis of Coronary Arterial Aneurysm Regression in Patients With Kawasaki Disease by Aneurysm Severity: Factors Associated With Regression

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    Background Coronary arterial aneurysms (CAAs) associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) significantly affect prognosis. However, the clinical course of CAAs and factors associated with CAA regression have not been well analyzed. Methods and Results The cohort of the Z‐Score 2nd Project Stage study, a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study involving 44 institutions in Japan including 1006 patients with KD, was examined. CAAs were classified by the z score of their internal diameter in the acute phase: small (z<5), medium (5≤z<10), and large (z≥10). The lower limit of small CAA was based on the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare criteria. In the right coronary artery, the CAA regression rates 10 years after diagnosis were 95.5% for small, 83.2% for medium, and 36.3% for large. In the proximal left anterior descending artery, the regression rates 10 years after diagnosis were 95.3% for small, 80.1% for medium, and 28.8% for large. Cox regression analysis showed that diagnosis under the age of 1 year and onset of KD in 2010 to 2012 for the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending artery, and female for the right coronary artery were significantly associated with a high regression rate, whereas large CAAs for the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending artery were significantly associated with a low regression rate. Conclusions The current study, the largest Japanese study of its kind, found that small aneurysm, recent onset, and diagnosis under the age of 1 year predict regression, and that even giant aneurysms could regress. These data may contribute to long‐term management of coronary aneurysms. Registration URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/; Unique identifier: UMIN000010606

    A Case of COVID-Related MERS (Clinically Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy with a Reversible Splenial Lesion) with a Typical Imaging Course and Hyponatremia in Adults—A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesions (MERS) is a mild form of encephalitis/encephalopathy that appears in association with various conditions, including infection. COVID-19 is also known to cause MERS. MERS more commonly occurs in children, and adult cases are relatively rare. Typical head MRI findings include a round lesion in the mid-layer of the corpus callosum with a high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images. Most improve within a week. Although the exact mechanism by which the cerebral corpus callosum is affected is still unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed, including the involvement of electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., hyponatremia) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6). In this report, we describe the first case of COVID-associated MERS with a typical imaging course and hyponatremia, with a review of the relevant literature. When psychiatric symptoms and the disturbance of consciousness appear in COVID patients, MERS should be considered in addition to delirium due to fever and hypoxia

    Comparison of survival times of advanced cancer patients with palliative care at home and in hospital

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    Objectives One primary concern about receiving care at home is that survival might be shortened because the quality and quantity of treatment provided at home will be inferior to that given in the hospital. Although our previous study demonstrated a longer survival of those with home-based palliative care (PC), it lacked adjustment for some potential confounders including symptoms and treatments during the stay. We aimed to compare the survival times among advanced cancer patients receiving home-based and hospital-based PC with adjusting for symptoms and treatments. Method We compared survival time of participants who enrolled two multicenter, prospective cohort studies of advanced cancer patients at 45-home-based PC services between July 2017 and December 2017, and at 23-hospital-based PC services between January 2017 and December 2017. We analyzed with stratification by the estimated survival of Days, Weeks, and Months, which were defined by modified Prognosis in Palliative care Study predictor models-A. We conducted a Cox regression analysis with adjusting for potential confounders including symptoms and treatments during the stay. Results A total of 2,998 patients were enrolled in both studies and 2,878 patients were analyzed; 988 patients receiving home-based PC and 1,890 receiving hospital-based PC. The survival time of patients receiving home-based PC was significantly longer than that of patients receiving hospital-based PC for the Days Prognosis (estimated median survival time: 10 days [95% CI 8.1–11.8] vs. 9 days [95% CI 8.3–10.4], p = 0.157), the Weeks prognosis (32 days [95% CI 28.9–35.4] vs. 22 days [95% CI 20.3–22.9], p Conclusion In this cohort of advanced cancer patients with a Weeks or Months prognosis, those receiving home-based PC survived longer than those receiving hospital-based PC after adjusting for symptoms and treatments

    Hyperprogressive disease in lung metastases without target lesion progression after durvalumab consolidation therapy: A case report

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    Abstract Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a novel progressive pattern that occurs after immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) administration. Here, a 74‐year‐old woman who had undergone right lower lobectomy for lung cancer received curative chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation therapy with durvalumab for metastatic recurrence confined to the mediastinal lymph nodes. Three weeks later, multiple randomly distributed nodular shadows appeared on chest CT, and thoracoscopic lung biopsy led to the diagnosis of multiple pulmonary metastases. HPD may be suspected when multiple metastases appear in new organs early after the administration of ICIs. This phenomenon may occur not only with ICI monotherapy but also with the administration of ICIs after chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, patients who have received radiation therapy should also be given similar attention early after the administration of ICIs

    TFEB-mediated lysosomal exocytosis alleviates high fat diet-induced lipotoxicity in the kidney

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    : Obesity is a major risk factor for end-stage kidney disease. We previously found that lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagic flux contributed to lipotoxicity in obesity-related kidney disease, both in humans and experimental animal models. However, the regulatory factors involved in countering renal lipotoxicity are largely unknown. Here we found that palmitic acid (PA) strongly promoted dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway in a Rag GTPase-dependent manner, although these effects gradually diminished after extended treatment. We then investigated the role of TFEB in the pathogenesis of obesity-related kidney disease. Proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC)-specific Tfeb-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited greater phospholipid accumulation in enlarged lysosomes, which manifested as multilamellar bodies (MLBs). Activated TFEB mediated lysosomal exocytosis of phospholipids, which help reduce MLB accumulation in PTECs. Furthermore, HFD-fed PTEC-specific Tfeb-deficient mice showed autophagic stagnation and exacerbated injury upon renal ischemia-reperfusion. Finally, higher body mass index was associated with increased vacuolation and decreased nuclear TFEB in the proximal tubules of chronic kidney disease patients. These results indicate a critical role of TFEB-mediated lysosomal exocytosis in counteracting renal lipotoxicity

    Dexmedetomidine versus haloperidol for sedation of non-intubated patients with hyperactive delirium during the night in a high dependency unit: study protocol for an open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial (DEX-HD trial)

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    Abstract Background Delirium is common in critically ill patients. Haloperidol has long been used for the treatment of delirium. Dexmedetomidine has recently been used to treat delirium among intubated critically ill patients. However, the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for delirium in non-intubated critically ill patients remains unknown. We hypothesize that dexmedetomidine is superior to haloperidol for sedation of patients with hyperactive delirium, and would reduce the prevalence of delirium among non-intubated patients after administration. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial to compare dexmedetomidine and haloperidol for the treatment of nocturnal hyperactive delirium in non-intubated patients in high dependency units (HDUs). Methods This is an open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and haloperidol for nocturnal hyperactive delirium in non-intubated patients at two HDUs of a tertiary hospital. We will recruit consecutive non-intubated patients who are admitted to the HDU from the emergency room, and allocate them in a 1:1 ratio to the dexmedetomidine or haloperidol group in advance. The allocated investigational drug will be administered only when participants develop hyperactive delirium (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale [RASS] score ≥1 and a positive score on the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU between 19:00 and 6:00 the next day) during the night at an HDU. Dexmedetomidine is administered continuously, while haloperidol is administered intermittently. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants who achieve the targeted sedation level (RASS score of between -3 and 0) 2h after the administration of the investigational drug. Secondary outcomes include the sedation level and prevalence of delirium on the day following the administration of the investigational drugs, and safety. We plan to enroll 100 participants who develop nocturnal hyperactive delirium and receive one of the two investigational drugs. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and haloperidol for sedation of non-intubated critically ill patients with hyperactive delirium in HDUs. The results of this study may confirm whether dexmedetomidine could be another option to sedate patients with hyperactive delirium. Trial registration Japan Registry of Clinical Trials, jRCT1051220015, registered on 21 April 2022