29 research outputs found

    Case Study of Selected Network Vulnerabilities

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    The main goal of this thesis is to deal with databases of vulnerable code bases and vulnerable applications, and to implement a tool for autonomous search and saving data from those databases to a local one. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part deals with my current knowledge of the main topic and creates a foundation for the implementation. Various kinds of vulnerabilities and network attacks are described in detail in this part. The practical part describes implementation of the tool and its real use

    Diabetes alters release of vascular reparative cells into circulation.

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    <p>(A) CACs as a percentage of total bone marrow cells, *** p<0.001 (B) CACs as a percentage of total splenocytes. (C) CACs as a percentage of total blood cells. CACs are gated as Lin<sup>-</sup> CD34<sup>+</sup> CD309<sup>+</sup> cells. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs in control and diabetic BM, spleen and blood are shown below. * p<0.05, N = 4–8.</p

    BM-derived cells in the retina of chimeric mice.

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    <p>(A) Number of BM-derived cells per mm<sup>2</sup> area of control or diabetic retina. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> cells in the retina shown below. (B) ~ 93% of GFP<sup>+</sup> cells detected in the retina are CD45<sup>-</sup> cells. Diabetes does not change the number of CD45<sup>-</sup> cells in the retina. Representative flow charts gated on GFP<sup>+</sup> cells of CD45<sup>-</sup> and CD45<sup>+</sup> cells shown below. N = 4.</p

    Diabetes alters response of BM-derived cells and splenocytes to LPS stimulation.

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    <p>Increased secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in (A) BM-derived dendritic cell-enriched population (B) splenocytes stimulated with LPS. N = 4–5, * p< 0.05.</p

    Diabetes alters homing efficiency of CACs.

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    <p>(A) Scheme for testing homing efficiency of diabetic CACs to the BM. Male C57BL/6-Tg(CAG-EGFP) mice were made diabetic by STZ injections. After 8 months of diabetes, 10,000 CACs were isolated from BM of diabetic and control GFP<sup>+</sup> mice, and injected into the vitreous of healthy mice. Seven days post injection the BM and retinas were collected and analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy for presence of GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs. (B) Control or diabetic GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs (green) injected into the vitreous of mice with healthy retinal vasculature stained red using anti-collagen IV antibody. Quantitation of area of green CACs observed in confocal retinal images is shown. Scale bars are 50 μm, N = 10–12. (C) Quantification of GFP<sup>+</sup> cells from bone marrow of tibia and femurs of recipient mice shows homing of diabetic GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs to the recipient bone marrow was significantly lower compared to control GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs. N = 4–6. (D) Diabetes significantly alters expression of integrins β2 and β3 on diabetic CACs in blood. N = 3, * p< 0.05, ** p<0.01.</p

    Diabetes alters BM-derived microglia in retina.

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    <p>(A) Percentage of BM-derived microglia per mm<sup>2</sup> area of control or diabetic retina. N = 7–8. (B) GFP<sup>+</sup> microglia (gated as GFP<sup>+</sup> cells that are Thy1<sup>-</sup>, Ly6G<sup>-</sup>, Ly6C<sup>-</sup>, CD45<sup>dim</sup> CD11b<sup>+</sup> cells) are expressed as a percentage of total GFP<sup>+</sup> retinal cells in control and diabetic retina of chimeric mice, and indicate increase in BM-derived microglia in diabetic mice. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> microglia in the retina are shown. N = 3–5, ** p< 0.01. (C) Confocal images of retina isolated from control or diabetic GFP<sup>+</sup> BM-transplanted mice. Microglial marker Iba-1<sup>+</sup> staining (red) with GFP<sup>+</sup> (green) cells, showing colocalization (yellow) in retina. Increased retraction of processes observed in BM-derived microglia in diabetic GFP<sup>+</sup> chimeric mouse retina compared to ramified, resting phenotype of microglia in control retinas (white arrowheads). Scale bars are 50 μm. (D) Quantification of dendrite length of microglia in diabetic and control chimeric mouse retinas is shown. N = 4–5, *** p< 0.001.</p

    Diabetes reduces number of BM-derived endothelial cells in retina.

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    <p>GFP<sup>+</sup> endothelial cells (gated as CD45<sup>-</sup> Tie-2<sup>+</sup> CD31<sup>+</sup> cells) are expressed as a percentage of total GFP<sup>+</sup> retinal cells, and indicate a significant decrease in BM-derived endothelial cells in diabetic mice. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> endothelial cells in the retina are shown. N = 4–5.</p

    Diurnal Dicer expression is altered in tissues from aged mice.

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    <p>(A) Dicer mRNA expression in mouse SCN shows diurnal oscillation with a phase advance observed in 24-month-old mice compared to 2-month-old mice. (B) Diurnal oscillation of Dicer expression occurs in the mouse retina, but the overall expression was reduced in aged mice. (C,D) In mouse BMNC, diurnal oscillation of Dicer mRNA (C) and protein expression (D) is lost in 24-month-old mice. (E) The oscillation patterns observed in livers of 2- and 24-month-old mice are in antiphase. For RNA expression, n=4 at each ZT time point for 2-month-old mice, and n=3 for 24-month-old mice. In (A)-(C) and (E), time points 17 and 21 have been duplicated to facilitate viewing of the time curve. The significance of diurnal oscillation by zero-amplitude test was indicated in the right end of the smooth curve. The significant difference at each time point between different age groups was indicated either above or below the SEM indicator. </p

    Dicer expression is reduced in progenitor cells from T2D human subjects.

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    <p>(A) Human peripheral blood was seeded in 35-mm dishes for 14 days to observe colony formation. Cells were maintained in serum-free medium following a 50% serum shock for 2 h. Cells were isolated every 4 h for mRNA expression. Dicer expression from healthy human peripheral blood colonies showed diurnal oscillation with peaks observed 8 and 32 h following serum shock. Loss of diurnal oscillation and reduced mRNA expression of Dicer was observed in colonies fromT2D subjects. (B) Dicer expression in freshly isolated diabetic CD34<sup>+</sup> cells was reduced compared to age- and sex-matched controls.</p

    T2D human subjects show an increase in <i>Alu</i> RNA expression in plasma.

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    <p>To quantify <i>Alu</i> RNA, control (n=4) and T2D subjects (n=7) underwent plasma collection at 4-h intervals. No diurnal oscillation of <i>Alu</i> RNA expression was observed in control or diabetic human plasma. The expression level of <i>Alu</i> RNA in diabetic subjects was significantly higher than that in controls at 4pm. </p
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