5,138 research outputs found

    EUSO-SPB1 mission and science

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    International audienceThe Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon 1 (EUSO-SPB1) was launched in 2017 April from Wanaka, New Zealand. The plan of this mission of opportunity on a NASA super pressure balloon test flight was to circle the southern hemisphere. The primary scientific goal was to make the first observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray extensive air showers (EASs) by looking down on the atmosphere with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence telescope from suborbital altitude (33 km). After 12 days and 4 h aloft, the flight was terminated prematurely in the Pacific Ocean. Before the flight, the instrument was tested extensively in the West Desert of Utah, USA, with UV point sources and lasers. The test results indicated that the instrument had sensitivity to EASs of ⪆3 EeV. Simulations of the telescope system, telescope on time, and realized flight trajectory predicted an observation of about 1 event assuming clear sky conditions. The effects of high clouds were estimated to reduce this value by approximately a factor of 2. A manual search and a machine-learning-based search did not find any EAS signals in these data. Here we review the EUSO-SPB1 instrument and flight and the EAS search

    EUSO-Offline: A comprehensive simulation and analysis framework

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    International audienceThe complexity of modern cosmic ray observatories and therich data sets they capture often require a sophisticated softwareframework to support the simulation of physical processes, detectorresponse, as well as reconstruction and analysis of real andsimulated data. Here we present the EUSO-Offline framework. Thecode base was originally developed by the Pierre AugerCollaboration, and portions of it have been adopted by othercollaborations to suit their needs. We have extended this softwareto fulfill the requirements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Raydetectors and very high energy neutrino detectors developed for theJoint Exploratory Missions for an Extreme Universe Observatory(JEM-EUSO). These path-finder instruments constitute a program tochart the path to a future space-based mission like POEMMA. Forcompleteness, we describe the overall structure of the frameworkdeveloped by the Auger collaboration and continue with a descriptionof the JEM-EUSO simulation and reconstruction capabilities. Theframework is written predominantly in modern C++ (compliled againstC++17) and incorporates third-party libraries chosen based onfunctionality and our best judgment regarding support andlongevity. Modularity is a central notion in the framework design, arequirement for large collaborations in which many individualscontribute to a common code base and often want to compare differentapproaches to a given problem. For the same reason, the framework isdesigned to be highly configurable, which allows us to contend witha variety of JEM-EUSO missions and observation scenarios. We alsodiscuss how we incorporate broad, industry-standard testing coveragewhich is necessary to ensure quality and maintainability of arelatively large code base, and the tools we employ to support amultitude of computing platforms and enable fast, reliableinstallation of external packages. Finally, we provide a fewexamples of simulation and reconstruction applications usingEUSO-Offline

    EUSO-Offline: A comprehensive simulation and analysis framework

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    International audienceThe complexity of modern cosmic ray observatories and therich data sets they capture often require a sophisticated softwareframework to support the simulation of physical processes, detectorresponse, as well as reconstruction and analysis of real andsimulated data. Here we present the EUSO-Offline framework. Thecode base was originally developed by the Pierre AugerCollaboration, and portions of it have been adopted by othercollaborations to suit their needs. We have extended this softwareto fulfill the requirements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Raydetectors and very high energy neutrino detectors developed for theJoint Exploratory Missions for an Extreme Universe Observatory(JEM-EUSO). These path-finder instruments constitute a program tochart the path to a future space-based mission like POEMMA. Forcompleteness, we describe the overall structure of the frameworkdeveloped by the Auger collaboration and continue with a descriptionof the JEM-EUSO simulation and reconstruction capabilities. Theframework is written predominantly in modern C++ (compliled againstC++17) and incorporates third-party libraries chosen based onfunctionality and our best judgment regarding support andlongevity. Modularity is a central notion in the framework design, arequirement for large collaborations in which many individualscontribute to a common code base and often want to compare differentapproaches to a given problem. For the same reason, the framework isdesigned to be highly configurable, which allows us to contend witha variety of JEM-EUSO missions and observation scenarios. We alsodiscuss how we incorporate broad, industry-standard testing coveragewhich is necessary to ensure quality and maintainability of arelatively large code base, and the tools we employ to support amultitude of computing platforms and enable fast, reliableinstallation of external packages. Finally, we provide a fewexamples of simulation and reconstruction applications usingEUSO-Offline

    Simulation studies for the Mini-EUSO detector

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    Mini-EUSO is a mission of the JEM-EUSO program flying onboard the International Space Station since August 2019. Since the first data acquisition in October 2019, more than 35 sessions have been performed for a total of 52 hours of observations. The detector has been observing Earth at night-time in the UV range and detected a wide variety of transient sources all of which have been modelled through Monte Carlo simulations. Mini-EUSO is also capable of detecting meteors and potentially space debris and we performed simulations for such events to estimate their impact on future missions for cosmic ray science from space. We show here examples of the simulation work done in this framework to analyse the Mini-EUSO data. The expected response of Mini-EUSO with respect to ultra high energy cosmic ray showers has been studied. The efficiency curve of Mini-EUSO as a function of primary energy has been estimated and the energy threshold for Cosmic Rays has been placed to be above 1021^{21} eV. We compared the morphology of several transient events detected during the mission with cosmic ray simulations and excluded that they can be due to cosmic ray showers. To validate the energy threshold of the detector, a system of ground based flashers is being used for end-to-end calibration purposes. We therefore implemented a parameterisation of such flashers into the JEM-EUSO simulation framework and studied the response of the detector with respect to such sources

    Event-by-event correlations between őõ\Lambda (őõňČ\bar{\Lambda}) hyperon global polarization and handedness with charged hadron azimuthal separation in Au+Au collisions at sNN=27¬†GeV\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 27 \text{ GeV} from STAR

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    Global polarizations (PP) of őõ\Lambda (őõňČ\bar{\Lambda}) hyperons have been observed in non-central heavy-ion collisions. The strong magnetic field primarily created by the spectator protons in such collisions would split the őõ\Lambda and őõňČ\bar{\Lambda} global polarizations (őĒP=Pőõ‚ąíPőõňČ<0\Delta P = P_{\Lambda} - P_{\bar{\Lambda}} < 0). Additionally, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts topological charge fluctuations in vacuum, resulting in a chirality imbalance or parity violation in a local domain. This would give rise to an imbalance (őĒn=NL‚ąíNR‚ü®NL+NR‚ü©‚Ȇ0\Delta n = \frac{N_{\text{L}} - N_{\text{R}}}{\langle N_{\text{L}} + N_{\text{R}} \rangle} \neq 0) between left- and right-handed őõ\Lambda (őõňČ\bar{\Lambda}) as well as a charge separation along the magnetic field, referred to as the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This charge separation can be characterized by the parity-even azimuthal correlator (őĒő≥\Delta\gamma) and parity-odd azimuthal harmonic observable (őĒa1\Delta a_{1}). Measurements of őĒP\Delta P, őĒő≥\Delta\gamma, and őĒa1\Delta a_{1} have not led to definitive conclusions concerning the CME or the magnetic field, and őĒn\Delta n has not been measured previously. Correlations among these observables may reveal new insights. This paper reports measurements of correlation between őĒn\Delta n and őĒa1\Delta a_{1}, which is sensitive to chirality fluctuations, and correlation between őĒP\Delta P and őĒő≥\Delta\gamma sensitive to magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at 27 GeV. For both measurements, no correlations have been observed beyond statistical fluctuations.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures; paper from the STAR Collaboratio

    International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: Sinonasal tumors

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    Background: Sinonasal neoplasms, whether benign and malignant, pose a significant challenge to clinicians and represents a model area for multidisciplinary collaboration in order to optimize patient care. The International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Sinonasal Tumors (ICSNT) aims to summarize the best available evidence and presents 48 thematic and histopathology-based topics spanning the field. Methods: In accordance with prior ICAR documents, ICSNT assigned each topic as an Evidence-Based Review with Recommendations, Evidence-Based Review, and Literature Review based on level of evidence. An international group of multidisciplinary author teams were assembled for the topic reviews using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses format, and completed sections underwent a thorough and iterative consensus-building process. The final document underwent rigorous synthesis and review prior to publication. Results: The ICNST document consists of 4 major sections: general principles, benign neoplasms and lesions, malignant neoplasms, and quality of life and surveillance. It covers 48 conceptual and/or histopathology-based topics relevant to sinonasal neoplasms and masses. Topics with a high level of evidence provided specific recommendations, while other areas summarized the current state of evidence. A final section highlights research opportunities and future directions, contributing to advancing knowledge and community intervention. Conclusion: As an embodiment of the multidisciplinary and collaborative model of care in sinonasal neoplasms and masses, ICSNT was designed as a comprehensive, international, and multidisciplinary collaborative endeavor. Its primary objective is to summarize the existing evidence in the field of sinonasal neoplasms and masses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    Incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs, and associations with age and sex or gender: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Measuring the incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) is key to track progress towards elimination. We aimed to summarise global data on HIV and primary HCV incidence among PWID and associations with age and sex or gender. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we updated an existing database of HIV and HCV incidence studies among PWID by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO, capturing studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 12, 2022, with no language or study design restrictions. We contacted authors of identified studies for unpublished or updated data. We included studies that estimated incidence by longitudinally re-testing people at risk of infection or by using assays for recent infection. We pooled incidence and relative risk (RR; young [generally defined as ‚ȧ25 years] vs older PWID; women vs men) estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and assessed risk of bias with a modified Newcastle‚ÄďOttawa scale. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020220884. Findings: Our updated search identified 9493 publications, of which 211 were eligible for full-text review. An additional 377 full-text records from our existing database and five records identified through cross-referencing were assessed. Including 28 unpublished records, 125 records met the inclusion criteria. We identified 64 estimates of HIV incidence (30 from high-income countries [HICs] and 34 from low-income or middle-income countries [LMICs]) and 66 estimates of HCV incidence (52 from HICs and 14 from LMICs). 41 (64%) of 64 HIV and 42 (64%) of 66 HCV estimates were from single cities rather than being multi-city or nationwide. Estimates were measured over 1987‚Äď2021 for HIV and 1992‚Äď2021 for HCV. Pooled HIV incidence was 1¬∑7 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1¬∑3‚Äď2¬∑3; I2=98¬∑4%) and pooled HCV incidence was 12¬∑1 per 100 person-years (10¬∑0‚Äď14¬∑6; I2=97¬∑2%). Young PWID had a greater risk of HIV (RR 1¬∑5, 95% CI 1¬∑2‚Äď1¬∑8; I2=66¬∑9%) and HCV (1¬∑5, 1¬∑3‚Äď1¬∑8; I2=70¬∑6%) acquisition than older PWID. Women had a greater risk of HIV (RR 1¬∑4, 95% CI 1¬∑1‚Äď1¬∑6; I2=55¬∑3%) and HCV (1¬∑2, 1¬∑1‚Äď1¬∑3; I2=43¬∑3%) acquisition than men. For both HIV and HCV, the median risk-of-bias score was 6 (IQR 6‚Äď7), indicating moderate risk. Interpretation: Although sparse, available HIV and HCV incidence estimates offer insights into global levels of HIV and HCV transmission among PWID. Intensified efforts are needed to keep track of the HIV and HCV epidemics among PWID and to expand access to age-appropriate and gender-appropriate prevention services that serve young PWID and women who inject drugs. Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Fonds de recherche du Qu√©bec‚ÄďSant√©, Canadian Network on Hepatitis C, UK National Institute for Health and Care Research, and WHO

    Elliptic Flow of Heavy-Flavor Decay Electrons in Au+Au Collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 27 and 54.4 GeV at RHIC

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    We report on new measurements of elliptic flow (v2v_2) of electrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays at mid-rapidity (‚ą£y‚ą£<0.8|y|<0.8) in Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 27 and 54.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. Heavy-flavor decay electrons (eHFe^{\rm HF}) in Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 54.4 GeV exhibit a non-zero v2v_2 in the transverse momentum (pTp_{\rm T}) region of pT<p_{\rm T}< 2 GeV/cc with the magnitude comparable to that at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=200 GeV. The measured eHFe^{\rm HF} v2v_2 at 54.4 GeV is also consistent with the expectation of their parent charm hadron v2v_2 following number-of-constituent-quark scaling as other light and strange flavor hadrons at this energy. These suggest that charm quarks gain significant collectivity through the evolution of the QCD medium and may reach local thermal equilibrium in Au+Au collisions at sNN=54.4\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=54.4 GeV. The measured eHFe^{\rm HF} v2v_2 in Au+Au collisions at sNN=\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}= 27 GeV is consistent with zero within large uncertainties. The energy dependence of v2v_2 for different flavor particles (ŌÄ,Ōē,D0/eHF\pi,\phi,D^{0}/e^{\rm HF}) shows an indication of quark mass hierarchy in reaching thermalization in high-energy nuclear collisions.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, 1 tabl

    Proteomic and genetic analyses of influenza A viruses identify pan-viral host targets

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    Abstract Influenza A Virus (IAV) is a recurring respiratory virus with limited availability of antiviral therapies. Understanding host proteins essential for IAV infection can identify targets for alternative host-directed therapies (HDTs). Using affinity purification-mass spectrometry and global phosphoproteomic and protein abundance analyses using three IAV strains (pH1N1, H3N2, H5N1) in three human cell types (A549, NHBE, THP-1), we map 332 IAV-human protein-protein interactions and identify 13 IAV-modulated kinases. Whole exome sequencing of patients who experienced severe influenza reveals several genes, including scaffold protein AHNAK, with predicted loss-of-function variants that are also identified in our proteomic analyses. Of our identified host factors, 54 significantly alter IAV infection upon siRNA knockdown, and two factors, AHNAK and coatomer subunit COPB1, are also essential for productive infection by SARS-CoV-2. Finally, 16 compounds targeting our identified host factors suppress IAV replication, with two targeting CDK2 and FLT3 showing pan-antiviral activity across influenza and coronavirus families. This study provides a comprehensive network model of IAV infection in human cells, identifying functional host targets for pan-viral HDT

    An overview of the JEM-EUSO program and results

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    The field of UHECRs (Ultra-High energy cosmic Rays) and the understanding of particle acceleration in the cosmos, as a key ingredient to the behaviour of the most powerful sources in the universe, is of outmost importance for astroparticle physics as well as for fundamental physics and will improve our general understanding of the universe. The current main goals are to identify sources of UHECRs and their composition. For this, increased statistics is required. A space-based detector for UHECR research has the advantage of a very large exposure and a uniform coverage of the celestial sphere. The aim of the JEM-EUSO program is to bring the study of UHECRs to space. The principle of observation is based on the detection of UV light emitted by isotropic Ô¨āuorescence of atmospheric nitrogen excited by the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the Earth‚Äôs atmosphere and forward-beamed Cherenkov radiation reÔ¨āected from the Earth‚Äôs surface or dense cloud tops. In addition to the prime objective of UHECR studies, JEM-EUSO will do several secondary studies due to the instruments\u27 unique capacity of detecting very weak UV-signals with extreme time-resolution around 1 microsecond: meteors, Transient Luminous Events (TLE), bioluminescence, maps of human generated UV-light, searches for Strange Quark Matter (SQM) and high-energy neutrinos, and more. The JEM-EUSO program includes several missions from ground (EUSO-TA), from stratospheric balloons (EUSO-Balloon, EUSO-SPB1, EUSO-SPB2), and from space (TUS, Mini-EUSO) employing fluorescence detectors to demonstrate the UHECR observation from space and prepare the large size missions K-EUSO and POEMMA. A review of the current status of the program, the key results obtained so far by the different projects, and the perspectives for the near future are presented
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