271 research outputs found

    Genomics of perivascular space burden unravels early mechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease

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    Perivascular space (PVS) burden is an emerging, poorly understood, magnetic resonance imaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of stroke and dementia. Genome-wide association studies in up to 40,095 participants (18 population-based cohorts, 66.3 ± 8.6 yr, 96.9% European ancestry) revealed 24 genome-wide significant PVS risk loci, mainly in the white matter. These were associated with white matter PVS already in young adults (N = 1,748; 22.1 ± 2.3 yr) and were enriched in early-onset leukodystrophy genes and genes expressed in fetal brain endothelial cells, suggesting early-life mechanisms. In total, 53% of white matter PVS risk loci showed nominally significant associations (27% after multiple-testing correction) in a Japanese population-based cohort (N = 2,862; 68.3 ± 5.3 yr). Mendelian randomization supported causal associations of high blood pressure with basal ganglia and hippocampal PVS, and of basal ganglia PVS and hippocampal PVS with stroke, accounting for blood pressure. Our findings provide insight into the biology of PVS and cerebral small vessel disease, pointing to pathways involving extracellular matrix, membrane transport and developmental processes, and the potential for genetically informed prioritization of drug targets.Etude de cohorte sur la santé des étudiantsStopping cognitive decline and dementia by fighting covert cerebral small vessel diseaseStudy on Environmental and GenomeWide predictors of early structural brain Alterations in Young student

    Characterization of early white matter changes in CADASIL using microscopic diffusion imaging and relaxometry

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    Background and purpose Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are characterized by early white matter (WM) changes, whose pathological underpinnings are yet poorly understood. CADASIL is a monogenic and archetypal SVD, providing an ideal model for investigating these changes. Here, we used multicompartment microscopic diffusion imaging and relaxometry to elucidate microstructural changes underlying early WM abnormalities in CADASIL. Methods We acquired diffusion MRI data with a multiple-shell Q-space sampling strategy, and relaxometry T1 and T2 data, with a 160 and 80-ÎŒm isotropic resolution respectively, ex vivo , in CADASIL and control mice. Diffusion datasets were computed with the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model to extract the neurite density index, the extracellular free water and the orientation dispersion index. Relaxometry datasets were computed with a 3-compartment myelin water imaging model to extract the myelin content. MRI metrics were compared between CADASIL and control mice using voxel and WM tract-based analyses and with electron microscopy analysis. Results WM in CADASIL mice displayed a widespread reduction in general fractional anisotropy, a large increase in extracellular free water, a reduction in the myelin content, but no reduction in neurite density. Electron microscopy analysis showed a ∜2-fold increase in the extracellular spaces and an elevation of the g-ratio indicative of myelin sheath thinning in CADASIL WM. Conclusion Our findings suggest that accumulation of interstitial fluid and myelin damage are 2 major factors underlying early WM changes in CADASIL. Advanced diffusion MRI and relaxometry are promising approaches to decipher the underpinnings of WM alterations in SVDs

    Gene-mapping study of extremes of cerebral small vessel disease reveals TRIM47 as a strong candidate

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    Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of stroke and a major contributor to cognitive decline and dementia, but our understanding of specific genes underlying the cause of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We report a genome-wide association study and a whole-exome association study on a composite extreme phenotype of cerebral small vessel disease derived from its most common MRI features: white matter hyperintensities and lacunes. Seventeen population-based cohorts of older persons with MRI measurements and genome-wide genotyping (n = 41 326), whole-exome sequencing (n = 15 965), or exome chip (n = 5249) data contributed 13 776 and 7079 extreme small vessel disease samples for the genome-wide association study and whole-exome association study, respectively. The genome-wide association study identified significant association of common variants in 11 loci with extreme small vessel disease, of which the chr12q24.11 locus was not previously reported to be associated with any MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease. The whole-exome association study identified significant associations of extreme small vessel disease with common variants in the 5' UTR region of EFEMP1 (chr2p16.1) and one probably damaging common missense variant in TRIM47 (chr17q25.1). Mendelian randomization supports the causal association of extensive small vessel disease severity with increased risk of stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Combined evidence from summary-based Mendelian randomization studies and profiling of human loss-of-function allele carriers showed an inverse relation between TRIM47 expression in the brain and blood vessels and extensive small vessel disease severity. We observed significant enrichment of Trim47 in isolated brain vessel preparations compared to total brain fraction in mice, in line with the literature showing Trim47 enrichment in brain endothelial cells at single cell level. Functional evaluation of TRIM47 by small interfering RNAs-mediated knockdown in human brain endothelial cells showed increased endothelial permeability, an important hallmark of cerebral small vessel disease pathology. Overall, our comprehensive gene-mapping study and preliminary functional evaluation suggests a putative role of TRIM47 in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease, making it an important candidate for extensive in vivo explorations and future translational work

    Perspectives on Cognitive Phenotypes and Models of Vascular Disease.

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    Clinical investigations have established that vascular-associated medical conditions are significant risk factors for various kinds of dementia. And yet, we are unable to associate certain types of vascular deficiencies with specific cognitive impairments. The reasons for this are many, not the least of which are that most vascular disorders are multi-factorial and the development of vascular dementia in humans is often a multi-year or multi-decade progression. To better study vascular disease and its underlying causes, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health has invested considerable resources in the development of animal models that recapitulate various aspects of human vascular disease. Many of these models, mainly in the mouse, are based on genetic mutations, frequently using single-gene mutations to examine the role of specific proteins in vascular function. These models could serve as useful tools for understanding the association of specific vascular signaling pathways with specific neurological and cognitive impairments related to dementia. To advance the state of the vascular dementia field and improve the information sharing between the vascular biology and neurobehavioral research communities, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop to bring in scientists from these knowledge domains to discuss the potential utility of establishing a comprehensive phenotypic cognitive assessment of a selected set of existing mouse models, representative of the spectrum of vascular disorders, with particular attention focused on age, sex, and rigor and reproducibility. The workshop highlighted the potential of associating well-characterized vascular disease models, with validated cognitive outcomes, that can be used to link specific vascular signaling pathways with specific cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits

    Perspectives on Cognitive Phenotypes and Models of Vascular Disease

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    Clinical investigations have established that vascular-Associated medical conditions are significant risk factors for various kinds of dementia. And yet, we are unable to associate certain types of vascular deficiencies with specific cognitive impairments. The reasons for this are many, not the least of which are that most vascular disorders are multi-factorial and the development of vascular dementia in humans is often a multi-year or multi-decade progression. To better study vascular disease and its underlying causes, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health has invested considerable resources in the development of animal models that recapitulate various aspects of human vascular disease. Many of these models, mainly in the mouse, are based on genetic mutations, frequently using single-gene mutations to examine the role of specific proteins in vascular function. These models could serve as useful tools for understanding the association of specific vascular signaling pathways with specific neurological and cognitive impairments related to dementia. To advance the state of the vascular dementia field and improve the information sharing between the vascular biology and neurobehavioral research communities, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop to bring in scientists from these knowledge domains to discuss the potential utility of establishing a comprehensive phenotypic cognitive assessment of a selected set of existing mouse models, representative of the spectrum of vascular disorders, with particular attention focused on age, sex, and rigor and reproducibility. The workshop highlighted the potential of associating well-characterized vascular disease models, with validated cognitive outcomes, that can be used to link specific vascular signaling pathways with specific cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits

    Gene-mapping study of extremes of cerebral small vessel disease reveals TRIM47 as a strong candidate

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    Funding Information: This project is an EU Joint Programme Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) project. The project is supported through the following funding organisations under the aegis of JPND www.jpnd. eu: Australia, National Health and Medical Research Council, Austria, Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy; Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research; France, French National Research Agency; Germany, Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Netherlands, The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; United Kingdom, Medical Research Council. This project has received funding from the European Union s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 643417. This project has also received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 640643 and from the European Union s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements Nos. 667375 and 754517. This work was also supported by a grant overseen by the French National Research Agency (ANR) as part of ANR-14-CE12-60016 and the Investment for the Future Programme ANR-18-RHUS-0002. Part of the computations were performed at the Bordeaux Bioinformatics Centre (CBiB), University of Bordeaux and at the CREDIM (Centre de Ressource et Dffeveloppement en Informatique Medicale) at University of Bordeaux, on a server infrastructure supported by the Fondation Claude Pompidou. The neurology Working Group in the CHARGE Consortium is partly funded by the CHARGE infrastructure grant R01HL105756 and grants from the National Institute on Aging, AG033193, AG049505, AG052409 and AG059421. P.M.M. acknowledges personal support from the Edmond J Safra Foundation and Lily Safra and an NIHR Senior Investigator Award and research support from the UK Dementia Research Institute and NIHR Imperial College Healthcare Trust Biomedical Research Centre. Study-specific funding information is provided in the Supplementary material. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s) (2022). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of stroke and a major contributor to cognitive decline and dementia, but our understanding of specific genes underlying the cause of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We report a genome-wide association study and a whole-exome association study on a composite extreme phenotype of cerebral small vessel disease derived from its most common MRI features: white matter hyperintensities and lacunes. Seventeen population-based cohorts of older persons with MRI measurements and genome-wide genotyping (n = 41326), whole-exome sequencing (n = 15965), or exome chip (n = 5249) data contributed 13776 and 7079 extreme small vessel disease samples for the genome-wide association study and whole-exome association study, respectively. The genome-wide association study identified significant association of common variants in 11 loci with extreme small vessel disease, of which the chr12q24.11 locus was not previously reported to be associated with any MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease. The whole-exome association study identified significant associations of extreme small vessel disease with common variants in the 5â€Č UTR region of EFEMP1 (chr2p16.1) and one probably damaging common missense variant in TRIM47 (chr17q25.1). Mendelian randomization supports the causal association of extensive small vessel disease severity with increased risk of stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Combined evidence from summary-based Mendelian randomization studies and profiling of human loss-of-function allele carriers showed an inverse relation between TRIM47 expression in the brain and blood vessels and extensive small vessel disease severity. We observed significant enrichment of Trim47 in isolated brain vessel preparations compared to total brain fraction in mice, in line with the literature showing Trim47 enrichment in brain endothelial cells at single cell level. Functional evaluation of TRIM47 by small interfering RNAs-mediated knockdown in human brain endothelial cells showed increased endothelial permeability, an important hallmark of cerebral small vessel disease pathology. Overall, our comprehensive gene-mapping study and preliminary functional evaluation suggests a putative role of TRIM47 in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease, making it an important candidate for extensive in vivo explorations and future translational work.Peer reviewe

    Characterization of early ultrastructural changes in the cerebral white matter of CADASIL small vessel disease using high pressure freezing/freeze-substitution

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    AIMS: The objective of this study was to elucidate the early white matter changes in CADASIL small vessel disease. METHODS: We used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution (HPF/FS) in combination with high resolution electron microscopy (EM), immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy of brain specimens from control and CADASIL (TgNotch3R169C ) mice aged 4 to 15 months to study white matter lesions in the corpus callosum. RESULTS: We first optimized the HPF/FS protocol in which samples were chemically prefixed, frozen in a sample carrier filled with 20% polyvinylpyrrolidone and freeze-substituted in a cocktail of tannic acid, osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate dissolved in acetone. EM analysis showed that CADASIL mice exhibit significant splitting of myelin layers and enlargement of the inner tongue of small calibre axons from the age of 6 months, then vesiculation of the inner tongue and myelin sheath thinning at 15 months of age. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, although only in older mice, but no reduction in the number of mature oligodendrocytes at any age. The number of Iba1 positive microglial cells was increased in older but not in younger CADASIL mice, but the number of activated microglial cells (Iba1 and CD68 positive) was unchanged at any age. CONCLUSION: We conclude that early WM lesions in CADASIL affect first and foremost the myelin sheath and the inner tongue, suggestive of a primary myelin injury. We propose that those defects are consistent with a hypoxic/ischaemic mechanism

    A Review of Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human and Rodent Experimental Models of Small Vessel Disease

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