1,612 research outputs found

    Moonlighting Newborn Screening Markers: The Incidental Discovery of a Second-Tier Test for Pompe Disease

    Get PDF
    Purpose: To describe a novel biochemical marker in dried blood spots suitable to improve the specificity of newborn screening for Pompe disease. Methods: The new marker is a ratio calculated between the creatine/creatinine (Cre/Crn) ratio as the numerator and the activity of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) as the denominator. Using Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR), the new marker was incorporated in a dual scatter plot that can achieve almost complete segregation between Pompe disease and false-positive cases. Results: The (Cre/Crn)/GAA ratio was measured in residual dried blood spots of five Pompe cases and was found to be elevated (range 4.41–13.26; 99%ile of neonatal controls: 1.10). Verification was by analysis of 39 blinded specimens that included 10 controls, 24 samples with a definitive classification (16 Pompe, 8 false positives), and 5 with genotypes of uncertain significance. The CLIR tool showed 100% concordance of classification for the 24 known cases. Of the remaining five cases, three p.V222M homozygotes, a benign variant, were classified by CLIR as false positives; two with genotypes of unknown significance, one likely informative, were categorized as Pompe disease. Conclusion: The CLIR tool inclusive of the new ratio could have prevented at least 12 of 13 (92%) false-positive outcomes

    Prognostic model to predict postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery based on a national prospective observational cohort study.

    Get PDF
    Background: Acute illness, existing co-morbidities and surgical stress response can all contribute to postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. The aim of this study was prospectively to develop a pragmatic prognostic model to stratify patients according to risk of developing AKI after major gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: This prospective multicentre cohort study included consecutive adults undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection, liver resection or stoma reversal in 2-week blocks over a continuous 3-month period. The primary outcome was the rate of AKI within 7 days of surgery. Bootstrap stability was used to select clinically plausible risk factors into the model. Internal model validation was carried out by bootstrap validation. Results: A total of 4544 patients were included across 173 centres in the UK and Ireland. The overall rate of AKI was 14·2 per cent (646 of 4544) and the 30-day mortality rate was 1·8 per cent (84 of 4544). Stage 1 AKI was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (unadjusted odds ratio 7·61, 95 per cent c.i. 4·49 to 12·90; P < 0·001), with increasing odds of death with each AKI stage. Six variables were selected for inclusion in the prognostic model: age, sex, ASA grade, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, planned open surgery and preoperative use of either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Internal validation demonstrated good model discrimination (c-statistic 0·65). Discussion: Following major gastrointestinal surgery, AKI occurred in one in seven patients. This preoperative prognostic model identified patients at high risk of postoperative AKI. Validation in an independent data set is required to ensure generalizability

    Study of Z boson production in pPb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV