288 research outputs found

    Determination of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in saliva samples and its association with nicotine

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    Introduction: The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main receptor of the SARS-CoV-2. There is contradictory evidence on how the exposure to nicotine may module the concentration of soluble ACE2 (sACE2). The aim of this study was to assess the association between nicotine and sACE2 concentrations in saliva samples.Methods: Pooled analysis performed with data retrieved from two studies (n = 634 and n = 302). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of sACE2, both total and relative to the total amount of protein in the sample, were compared according to sociodemographic variables and variables associated to nicotine. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to explore the associations of sACE2 with nicotine adjusting for sex, age and body mass index. Spearman's rank-correlation coefficients were estimated between the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, and pack-years, the concentration of relative sACE2 and the isoforms of sACE2.Results: We observed a significant increase of 0.108 & PTSTHOUSND; and 0.087 ng/mu l in the relative and absolute salivary sACE2 GM concentrations, respectively, between the lowest and highest nicotine levels. Similar results were observed for cotinine. These associations did not change in the multivariable linear models. There was a low correlation of nicotine and cotinine concentration with the concentration of relative salivary sACE2 (r(s) = 0.153 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively), pack-years (r(s) = 0.222 and rs = 0.235, respectively) and with the concentration of isoform 40 KDa (r(s) = 0.193 and r(s) = 0.140, respectively).Conclusion: Salivary nicotine concentration seems to be limitedly associated with the concentration of sACE2

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Q-SAPS?: qu√® saben sobre salut p√ļblica a l‚Äôatenci√≥ prim√†ria?

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    Malalties; Declaraci√≥ obligat√≤ria; Brots epid√®micsEnfermedades; Declaraci√≥n obligatoria; Brotes epid√©micosDiseases; Mandatory declaration; Epidemic outbreaksEl treball d‚Äôaquesta comunitat de pr√†ctica (CoP) pret√©n ajudar a detectar mancances de coneixement sobre la salut p√ļblica entre els professionals de l‚Äôatenci√≥ prim√†ria i elaborar un document de propostes per millorar el coneixement referit en aquest √†mbit. Amb les seg√ľents propostes de valor: 1-Con√®ixer les funcions de cada actor en les malalties de declaraci√≥ obligat√≤ria (MDO), emergents i brots epid√®mics. 2-Detectar mancances de coneixement i dificultats per a declarar. 3-Saber la utilitat de declarar MDO i brots epid√®mics, ja que no √©s nom√©s un simple registre sin√≥ que hi ha una actuaci√≥ al darrere. 4-Con√®ixer les actuacions comunit√†ries que cal fer en cada malaltia per controlar-la, i brots epid√®mics.El trabajo de esta comunidad de pr√°ctica (CoP) pretende ayudar a detectar carencias de conocimiento sobre la salud p√ļblica entre los profesionales de la atenci√≥n primaria y elaborar un documento de propuestas para mejorar el conocimiento referido en este √°mbito. Con las siguientes propuestas de valor: 1-Conocer las funciones de cada actor en las enfermedades de declaraci√≥n obligatoria (MDO), emergentes y brotes epid√©micos. 2-Detectar carencias de conocimiento y dificultades para declarar. 3-Saber la utilidad de declarar EDO y brotes epid√©micos, ya que no es s√≥lo un simple registro sino que hay una actuaci√≥n detr√°s. 4-Conocer las actuaciones comunitarias a realizar en cada enfermedad para controlarla, y brotes epid√©micos.The work of this community of practice (CoP) aims to help detect gaps in knowledge about public health among primary care professionals and prepare a document of proposals to improve the knowledge referred to in this area. With the following value propositions: 1-Know the functions of each actor in notifiable diseases, emerging diseases and epidemic outbreaks. 2-Detect knowledge gaps and difficulties in declaring. 3-Know the usefulness of declaring notifiable diseases and epidemic outbreaks, since it is not just a simple record but there is an action behind it. 4-Know the community actions to be carried out in each disease to control it, and epidemic outbreaks

    CDK6 is activated by the atypical cyclin I to promote E2F‚Äźmediated gene expression and cancer cell proliferation

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    Cyclin‚Äźdependent kinases (CDKs), together with their cyclin partners, are the master cell cycle regulators. Remarkably, the cyclin family was extended to include atypical cyclins, characterized by distinctive structural features, but their partner CDKs remain elusive. Here, we conducted a yeast two‚Äźhybrid screen to identify new atypical cyclin‚ÄďCDK complexes. We identified 10 new complexes, including a complex between CDK6 and cyclin I (CCNI), which was found to be active against retinoblastoma protein. CCNI upregulation increased the proliferation of breast cancer cells in‚ÄČvitro and in‚ÄČvivo, with a magnitude similar to that seen upon cyclin D upregulation, an effect that was abrogated by CDK6 silencing or palbociclib treatment. In line with these findings, CCNI downregulation led to a decrease in cell number and a reduction in the percentage of cells reaching S phase. Finally, CCNI upregulation correlated with the high expression of E2F target genes in large panels of cancer cell lines and tissue samples from breast cancer patients. In conclusion, we unveil CCNI as a new player in the pathways that activate CDK6, enriching the wiring of cell cycle control

    Determination of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in saliva samples and its association with nicotine

    No full text
    Introduction: the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main receptor of the SARS-CoV-2. There is contradictory evidence on how the exposure to nicotine may module the concentration of soluble ACE2 (sACE2). The aim of this study was to assess the association between nicotine and sACE2 concentrations in saliva samples. Methods: pooled analysis performed with data retrieved from two studies (n = 634 and n = 302). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of sACE2, both total and relative to the total amount of protein in the sample, were compared according to sociodemographic variables and variables associated to nicotine. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to explore the associations of sACE2 with nicotine adjusting for sex, age and body mass index. Spearman's rank-correlation coefficients were estimated between the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, and pack-years, the concentration of relative sACE2 and the isoforms of sACE2. Results: we observed a significant increase of 0.108‚Äį and 0.087 ng/őľl in the relative and absolute salivary sACE2 GM concentrations, respectively, between the lowest and highest nicotine levels. Similar results were observed for cotinine. These associations did not change in the multivariable linear models. There was a low correlation of nicotine and cotinine concentration with the concentration of relative salivary sACE2 (rs = 0.153 and rs = 0.132, respectively), pack-years (rs = 0.222 and rs = 0.235, respectively) and with the concentration of isoform 40 KDa (rs = 0.193 and rs = 0.140, respectively). Conclusion: Salivary nicotine concentration seems to be limitedly associated with the concentration of sACE2

    Schistosomiasis screening in non-endemic countries from a cost perspective: Knowledge gaps and research priorities. The case of African long-term residents in a Metropolitan Area, Spain.

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    BackgroundImported schistosomiasis is an emerging issue in European countries as a result of growing global migration from schistosomiasis-endemic countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Undetected infection may lead to serious long-term complications with an associated high cost for public healthcare systems especially among long-term migrants.ObjectiveTo evaluate from a health economics perspective the introduction of schistosomiasis screening programs in non-endemic countries with high prevalence of long-term migrants.MethodologyWe calculated the costs associated with three approaches-presumptive treatment, test-and-treat and watchful waiting-under different scenarios of prevalence, treatment efficacy and the cost of care resulting from long-term morbidity. Costs were estimated for our study area, in which there are reported to reside 74,000 individuals who have been exposed to the infection. Additionally, we methodically reviewed the potential factors that could affect the cost/benefit ratio of a schistosomiasis screening program and need therefore to be ascertained.ResultsAssuming a 24% prevalence of schistosomiasis in the exposed population and 100% treatment efficacy, the estimated associated cost per infected person of a watchful waiting strategy would be ‚ā¨2,424, that of a presumptive treatment strategy would be ‚ā¨970 and that of a test-and-treat strategy would be ‚ā¨360. The difference in averted costs between test-and-treat and watchful waiting strategies ranges from nearly ‚ā¨60 million in scenarios of high prevalence and treatment efficacy, to a neutral costs ratio when these parameters are halved. However, there are important gaps in our understanding of issues such as the efficacy of treatment in infected long-term residents, the natural history of schistosomiasis in long-term migrants and the feasibility of screening programs.ConclusionOur results support the roll-out of a schistosomiasis screening program based on a test-and-treat strategy from a health economics perspective under the most likely projected scenarios, but important knowledge gaps should be addressed for a more accurate estimations among long-term migrants

    Subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin for prevention of disease in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trialResearch in context

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    Summary: Background: Anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) can provide standardized and controlled antibody content. Data from controlled clinical trials using hIG for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 outpatients have not been reported. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin 20% (C19-IG20%) compared to placebo in preventing development of symptomatic COVID-19 in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We did a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in asymptomatic unvaccinated adults (‚Č•18 years of age) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within 5 days between April 28 and December 27, 2021. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a blinded subcutaneous infusion of 10¬†mL with 1¬†g or 2¬†g of C19-IG20%, or an equivalent volume of saline as placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who remained asymptomatic through day 14 after infusion. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of individuals who required oxygen supplementation, any medically attended visit, hospitalisation, or ICU, and viral load reduction and viral clearance in nasopharyngeal swabs. Safety was assessed as the proportion of patients with adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to a lack of potential benefit in the target population in a¬†planned interim analysis conducted in December 2021. ClinicalTrials.gov registry: NCT04847141. Findings: 461 individuals (mean age 39.6 years [SD 12.8]) were randomized and received the intervention within a mean of 3.1 (SD 1.27) days from a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In the prespecified modified intention-to-treat analysis that included only participants who received a subcutaneous infusion, the primary outcome occurred in 59.9% (91/152) of participants receiving 1¬†g C19-IG20%, 64.7% (99/153) receiving 2¬†g, and 63.5% (99/156) receiving placebo (difference in proportions 1¬†g C19-IG20% vs. placebo,¬†‚ąí3.6%; 95% CI -14.6% to 7.3%, p¬†=¬†0.53; 2¬†g C19-IG20% vs placebo, 1.1%;¬†‚ąí9.6% to 11.9%, p¬†=¬†0.85). None of the secondary clinical efficacy endpoints or virological endpoints were significantly different between study groups. Adverse event rate was similar between groups, and no severe or life-threatening adverse events related to investigational product infusion were reported. Interpretation: Our findings suggested that administration of subcutaneous human hyperimmune immunoglobulin C19-IG20% to asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection was safe but did not prevent development of symptomatic COVID-19. Funding: Grifols

    Subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin for prevention of disease in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection : a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial

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    Anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) can provide standardized and controlled antibody content. Data from controlled clinical trials using hIG for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 outpatients have not been reported. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin 20% (C19-IG20%) compared to placebo in preventing development of symptomatic COVID-19 in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We did a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in asymptomatic unvaccinated adults (‚Č•18 years of age) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within 5 days between April 28 and December 27, 2021. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a blinded subcutaneous infusion of 10 mL with 1 g or 2 g of C19-IG20%, or an equivalent volume of saline as placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who remained asymptomatic through day 14 after infusion. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of individuals who required oxygen supplementation, any medically attended visit, hospitalisation, or ICU, and viral load reduction and viral clearance in nasopharyngeal swabs. Safety was assessed as the proportion of patients with adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to a lack of potential benefit in the target population in a planned interim analysis conducted in December 2021. registry: . 461 individuals (mean age 39.6 years [SD 12.8]) were randomized and received the intervention within a mean of 3.1 (SD 1.27) days from a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In the prespecified modified intention-to-treat analysis that included only participants who received a subcutaneous infusion, the primary outcome occurred in 59.9% (91/152) of participants receiving 1 g C19-IG20%, 64.7% (99/153) receiving 2 g, and 63.5% (99/156) receiving placebo (difference in proportions 1 g C19-IG20% vs. placebo, ‚ąí3.6%; 95% CI -14.6% to 7.3%, p = 0.53; 2 g C19-IG20% vs placebo, 1.1%; ‚ąí9.6% to 11.9%, p = 0.85). None of the secondary clinical efficacy endpoints or virological endpoints were significantly different between study groups. Adverse event rate was similar between groups, and no severe or life-threatening adverse events related to investigational product infusion were reported. Our findings suggested that administration of subcutaneous human hyperimmune immunoglobulin C19-IG20% to asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection was safe but did not prevent development of symptomatic COVID-19.

    Negative schizophrenic symptoms as prefrontal cortex dysfunction: Examination using a task measuring goal neglect

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    Background: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have been proposed to reflect prefrontal cortex dysfunction. However, this proposal has not been consistently supported in functional imaging studies, which have also used executive tasks that may not capture key aspects of negative symptoms such as lack of volition. Method: Twenty-four DSM-5 schizophrenic patients with high negative symptoms (HNS), 25 with absent negative symptoms (ANS) and 30 healthy controls underwent fMRI during performance of the Computerized Multiple Elements Test (CMET), a task designed to measure poor organization of goal directed behaviour or 'goal neglect'. Negative symptoms were rated using the PANSS and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Results: On whole brain analysis, the ANS patients showed no significant clusters of reduced activation compared to the healthy controls. In contrast, the HNS patients showed hypoactivation compared to the healthy controls in the left anterior frontal cortex, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the anterior insula bilaterally and the bilateral inferior parietal cortex. When compared to the ANS patients, the HNS patients showed reduced activation in the left anterior frontal cortex, the left DLPFC and the left inferior parietal cortex. After controlling for disorganization scores, differences remained in clusters in the left anterior frontal cortex and the bilateral inferior parietal cortex. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that reduced prefrontal activation, perhaps especially in the left anterior frontal cortex, is a brain functional correlate of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The simultaneous finding of reduced inferior parietal cortex activation was unexpected, but could reflect this region's involvement in cognitive control, particularly the 'regulative' component of this

    Shaped before birth: Obstetric complications identify a more severe clinical phenotype among patients presenting a first affective or non-affective episode of psychosis

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    Obstetric complications (OCs) may contribute to the heterogeneity that characterizes psychiatric illness, particularly the phenotypic presentation of first episode psychoses (FEP). Our aim was to examine the relationship between OCs and socio-demographic, clinical, functioning and neuropsychological characteristics in affective and non-affective FEP. We performed a cross-sectional,study where we recruited participants with FEP between 2011 and 2021, and retrospectively assessed OCs using the Lewis-Murray scale. OCs were used as a dichotomous variable and further stratified into three subtypes: complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and difficulties in delivery. We performed a logistic stepwise forward regression analysis to examine variables associated with the presence of OCs. Of the 104 participants (67 affective FEP and 37 non-affective FEP), 31.7% (n = 33) had experienced OCs. Subjects with OCs showed a more gradual emergence of prodromal symptoms as well as higher negative and total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of OCs was independently associated with a younger age at first episode of any type (OR = 0.904, p = 0.003) and slower emergence of prodromal symptoms (OR = 0.274, p = 0.011). When considering specific types of OCs, those related with fetal growth were associated with worse neuropsychological performance, while OCs at delivery were related to earlier onset of illness and more severe symptoms. In conclusion, OCs signaled a specific FEP phenotype characterized by earlier and more protracted onset of illness as well as more burdensome symptoms, independently of FEP type (i.e., affective vs non-affective). These results indicate a potential target of early intervention in FEP
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