462 research outputs found

    Multiancestry analysis of the HLA locus in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases uncovers a shared adaptive immune response mediated by HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes

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    Across multiancestry groups, we analyzed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) associations in over 176,000 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) versus controls. We demonstrate that the two diseases share the same protective association at the HLA locus. HLA-specific fine-mapping showed that hierarchical protective effects of HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes best accounted for the association, strongest with HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*04:07, and intermediary with HLA-DRB1*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*04:03. The same signal was associated with decreased neurofibrillary tangles in postmortem brains and was associated with reduced tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid and to a lower extent with increased AÎČ42. Protective HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes strongly bound the aggregation-prone tau PHF6 sequence, however only when acetylated at a lysine (K311), a common posttranslational modification central to tau aggregation. An HLA-DRB1*04-mediated adaptive immune response decreases PD and AD risks, potentially by acting against tau, offering the possibility of therapeutic avenues

    A kinematic, imaging and electromyography dataset for human muscular manipulability index prediction

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    Human Muscular Manipulability is a metric that measures the comfort of an specific pose and it can be used for a variety of applications related to healthcare. For this reason, we introduce KIMHu: a Kinematic, Imaging and electroMyography dataset for Human muscular manipulability index prediction. The dataset is comprised of images, depth maps, skeleton tracking data, electromyography recordings and 3 different Human Muscular Manipulability indexes of 20 participants performing different physical exercises with their arm. The methodology followed to acquire and process the data is also presented for future replication. A specific analysis framework for Human Muscular Manipulability is proposed in order to provide benchmarking tools based on this dataset.Óscar G. HernĂĄndez and JosĂ© M. LĂłpez Castellanos expresses their gratitude to the FundaciĂłn Carolina, the National Autonomous University of Honduras and the University of Alicante, for its funding support while this work was in preparation. This work has also been supported by an University of Alicante Grant GRE-20 (2021/00710/001) and by the Spanish Government Grant PID2019-104818RB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”

    Use of bevacizumab in pediatric low-grade glioma: Ten-year experience in a single center

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    Purpose: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) have an excellent overall survival, but frequently need non-surgical therapy at diagnosis or after progression when located in unresectable sites such as the optic pathway. Chemotherapy side effects have led to the need for better-tolerated regimens with a sustained response. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody has been used in monotherapy and/or in combination for these entities. Here we present our experience with its use in PLGG. Methods: The authors performed a retrospective, observational, single-institution study, between 2008 and 2018, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in progressive PLGG. Results: Twenty-six patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.32 years old [0.12–14.7] and a median age at treatment of 8.11 years old [0.41–16.82] were included in the study. Nineteen had optic pathway gliomas and chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas (73.1%), 9 of them (47.4%) associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fourteen non-NF1 tumors were molecularly studied, disclosing BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion transcript in 9, and BRAF V600E mutation in 2. Bevacizumab was administered in combination with other agent(s) in 16 of the 35 treatment courses. Responses were assessed at 3, 12 months and at the end of treatment. Progression free survival at 12 and 36 months was 91.4% and 31.4%, respectively, and no severe adverse events were observed. Conclusions: In our series, Bevacizumab in PLGG showed clinical efficacy with a favorable toxicity profile. Larger prospective studies may determine whether the response is conditional upon age, tumor location, and different histological and/or molecular characterization

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P < 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    DinĂĄmicas en el establecimiento de las especies de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) y enfermedades vectoriales humanas asociadas al cambio climĂĄtico

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    Las alteraciones del clima provocan variaciones en la emergencia y reemergencia de vectores y las enfermedades vectoriales asociadas a ellos. Las condiciones del medio facilitan o impiden su establecimiento en distintos hábitats posibilitando o dificultando la aparición de las enfermedades. Los datos conocidos en nuestro país muestran la posibilidad real de la aparición de enfermedades ya que se viene observando un incremento de generaciones anuales, en muchas especies vectoras, tanto por la reducción del tiempo de desarrollo larvario como por la extensión temporal del período óptimo estacional fruto del ascenso de las temperaturas. El estudio de la bioecología y de la dinámica poblacional de los principales vectores, los mosquitos Culícidos, se postula de vital importancia para poder predecir escenarios locales

    Behavioral responses of terrestrial mammals to COVID-19 lockdowns

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    DATA AND MATERIALS AVAILABILITY : The full dataset used in the final analyses (33) and associated code (34) are available at Dryad. A subset of the spatial coordinate datasets is available at Zenodo (35). Certain datasets of spatial coordinates will be available only through requests made to the authors due to conservation and Indigenous sovereignty concerns (see table S1 for more information on data use restrictions and contact information for data requests). These sensitive data will be made available upon request to qualified researchers for research purposes, provided that the data use will not threaten the study populations, such as by distribution or publication of the coordinates or detailed maps. Some datasets, such as those overseen by government agencies, have additional legal restrictions on data sharing, and researchers may need to formally apply for data access. Collaborations with data holders are generally encouraged, and in cases where data are held by Indigenous groups or institutions from regions that are under-represented in the global science community, collaboration may be required to ensure inclusion.COVID-19 lockdowns in early 2020 reduced human mobility, providing an opportunity to disentangle its effects on animals from those of landscape modifications. Using GPS data, we compared movements and road avoidance of 2300 terrestrial mammals (43 species) during the lockdowns to the same period in 2019. Individual responses were variable with no change in average movements or road avoidance behavior, likely due to variable lockdown conditions. However, under strict lockdowns 10-day 95th percentile displacements increased by 73%, suggesting increased landscape permeability. Animals’ 1-hour 95th percentile displacements declined by 12% and animals were 36% closer to roads in areas of high human footprint, indicating reduced avoidance during lockdowns. Overall, lockdowns rapidly altered some spatial behaviors, highlighting variable but substantial impacts of human mobility on wildlife worldwide.The Radboud Excellence Initiative, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the National Science Foundation, Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Dutch Research Council NWO program “Advanced Instrumentation for Wildlife Protection”, Fondation SegrĂ©, RZSS, IPE, Greensboro Science Center, Houston Zoo, Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, Nashville Zoo, Naples Zoo, Reid Park Zoo, Miller Park, WWF, ZCOG, Zoo Miami, Zoo Miami Foundation, Beauval Nature, Greenville Zoo, Riverbanks zoo and garden, SAC Zoo, La Passarelle Conservation, Parc Animalier d’Auvergne, Disney Conservation Fund, Fresno Chaffee zoo, Play for nature, North Florida Wildlife Center, Abilene Zoo, a Liber Ero Fellowship, the Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program, Habitat Conservation Trust Foundation, Teck Coal, and the Grand Teton Association. The collection of Norwegian moose data was funded by the Norwegian Environment Agency, the German Ministry of Education and Research via the SPACES II project ORYCS, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, Bureau of Land Management, Muley Fanatic Foundation (including Southwest, Kemmerer, Upper Green, and Blue Ridge Chapters), Boone and Crockett Club, Wyoming Wildlife and Natural Resources Trust, Knobloch Family Foundation, Wyoming Animal Damage Management Board, Wyoming Governor’s Big Game License Coalition, Bowhunters of Wyoming, Wyoming Outfitters and Guides Association, Pope and Young Club, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Wyoming Wild Sheep Foundation, Wild Sheep Foundation, Wyoming Wildlife/Livestock Disease Research Partnership, the US National Science Foundation [IOS-1656642 and IOS-1656527, the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, and by a GRUPIN research grant from the Regional Government of Asturias, Sigrid Rausing Trust, Batubay Özkan, Barbara Watkins, NSERC Discovery Grant, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act under Pittman-Robertson project, the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, Rufford Foundation, an American Society of Mammalogists African Graduate Student Research Fund, the German Science Foundation, the Israeli Science Foundation, the BSF-NSF, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food and Slovenian Research Agency (CRP V1-1626), the Aage V. Jensen Naturfond (project: Kronvildt - viden, vĂŠrdier og vĂŠrktĂžjer), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy, National Centre for Research and Development in Poland, the Slovenian Research Agency, the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, Disney Conservation Fund, Whitley Fund for Nature, Acton Family Giving, Zoo Basel, Columbus, Bioparc de DouĂ©-la-Fontaine, Zoo Dresden, Zoo Idaho, KolmĂ„rden Zoo, Korkeasaari Zoo, La Passarelle, Zoo New England, Tierpark Berlin, Tulsa Zoo, the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Government of Mongolia, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, the National Science Foundation, Parks Canada, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Alberta Environment and Parks, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Safari Club International and Alberta Conservation Association, the Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y TecnologĂ­a (CONACYT) of Paraguay, the Norwegian Environment Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, EU funded Interreg SI-HR 410 Carnivora Dinarica project, Paklenica and Plitvice Lakes National Parks, UK Wolf Conservation Trust, EURONATUR and Bernd Thies Foundation, the Messerli Foundation in Switzerland and WWF Germany, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie SkƂodowska-Curie Actions, NASA Ecological Forecasting Program, the Ecotone Telemetry company, the French National Research Agency, LANDTHIRST, grant REPOS awarded by the i-Site MUSE thanks to the “Investissements d’avenir” program, the ANR Mov-It project, the USDA Hatch Act Formula Funding, the Fondation Segre and North American and European Zoos listed at http://www.giantanteater.org/, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, the Yellowstone Forever and the National Park Service, Missouri Department of Conservation, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Grant, and State University of New York, various donors to the Botswana Predator Conservation Program, data from collared caribou in the Northwest Territories were made available through funds from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories. The European Research Council Horizon2020, the British Ecological Society, the Paul Jones Family Trust, and the Lord Kelvin Adam Smith fund, the Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute and Tanzania National Parks. The Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe Fish and Game Department and the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Kodiak Brown Bear Trust, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Koniag Native Corporation, Old Harbor Native Corporation, Afognak Native Corporation, Ouzinkie Native Corporation, Natives of Kodiak Native Corporation and the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, and the Slovenia Hunters Association and Slovenia Forest Service. F.C. was partly supported by the Resident Visiting Researcher Fellowship, IMĂ©RA/Aix-Marseille UniversitĂ©, Marseille. This work was partially funded by the Center of Advanced Systems Understanding (CASUS), which is financed by Germany’s Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and by the Saxon Ministry for Science, Culture and Tourism (SMWK) with tax funds on the basis of the budget approved by the Saxon State Parliament. This article is a contribution of the COVID-19 Bio-Logging Initiative, which is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF9881) and the National Geographic Society.https://www.science.org/journal/sciencehj2023Mammal Research InstituteZoology and Entomolog

    Tomographic Findings in the Retina of Unvaccinated Patients with COVID Pneumonia: Prospective Longitudinal Study

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    There is no definitive evidence on the extent of SARS-CoV-2’s effect on the retina. This study aims to determine if the natural history of SARS-CoV-2 infection affects tomographic findings in the retina of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This is a prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patients underwent ophthalmological explorations and optical coherence tomography during the acute phase of the infection and at a follow-up 12 weeks later. The primary outcomes were the central retinal thickness and central choroidal thickness, which were compared longitudinally and with non-COVID-19 historical controls. No statistically relevant differences were observed in the longitudinal analysis of the thickness of the central retina (p = 0.056), central choroid (p = 0.99), retinal nerve fiber layer (p = 0.21), or ganglion cell layer (p = 0.32). Patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia showed significantly greater central retinal thickness than non-COVID controls (p = 0.006). In conclusion, tomographic measures of the retina and choroid are not influenced by the phase of COVID-19 infection and remain stable during 12 weeks. The central retinal thickness may increase in the acute phase of COVID-19 pneumonia, but more epidemiological studies using optical coherence tomography in the early stages of the disease are needed

    Plitidepsin in adult patients with COVID-19 requiring hospital admission : A long-term follow-up analysis

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    The APLICOV-PC study assessed the safety and preliminary efficacy of plitidepsin in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. In this follow-up study (E-APLICOV), the incidence of post-COVID-19 morbidity was evaluated and any long-term complications were characterized. Between January 18 and March 16, 2022, 34 of the 45 adult patients who received therapy with plitidepsin in the APLICOV-PC study were enrolled in E-APLICOV (median time from plitidepsin first dose to E-APLICOV enrollment, 16.8 months [range, 15.2-19.5 months]). All patients were functionally autonomous with regard to daily living (Barthel index: 100) and had normal physical examinations. From the APLICOV-PC date of discharge to the date of the extension visit, neither Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0 (CTCAE v5) grade 3-4 complications nor QT prolongation or significant electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities were reported. Five (14.7%) patients had another COVID-19 episode after initial discharge from APLICOV-PC, and in 2 patients (5.9%), previously unreported chest X-ray findings were documented. Spirometry and lung-diffusion tests were normal in 29 (85.3%) and 27 (79.4%) patients, respectively, and 3 patients needed additional oxygen supplementation after initial hospital discharge. None of these patients required subsequent hospital readmission for disease-related complications. In conclusion, plitidepsin has demonstrated a favorable long-term safety profile in adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19. With the constraints of a low sample size and a lack of control, the rate of post-COVID-19 complications after treatment with plitidepsin is in the low range of published reports. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05121740;)