27 research outputs found

    A meta-QTL analysis highlights genomic hotspots associated with phosphorus use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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    Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is a complex trait, governed by many minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with small effects. Advances in molecular marker technology have led to the identification of QTLs underlying PUE. However, their practical use in breeding programs remains challenging due to the unstable effects in different genetic backgrounds and environments, interaction with soil status, and linkage drag. Here, we compiled PUE QTL information from 16 independent studies. A total of 192 QTLs were subjected to meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis and were projected into a high-density SNP consensus map. A total of 60 MQTLs, with significantly reduced number of initial QTLs and confidence intervals (CI), were identified across the rice genome. Candidate gene (CG) mining was carried out for the 38 MQTLs supported by multiple QTLs from at least two independent studies. Genes related to amino and organic acid transport and auxin response were found to be abundant in the MQTLs linked to PUE. CGs were cross validated using a root transcriptome database (RiceXPro) and haplotype analysis. This led to the identification of the eight CGs (OsARF8, OsSPX-MFS3, OsRING141, OsMIOX, HsfC2b, OsFER2, OsWRKY64, and OsYUCCA11) modulating PUE. Potential donors for superior PUE CG haplotypes were identified through haplotype analysis. The distribution of superior haplotypes varied among subspecies being mostly found in indica but were largely scarce in japonica. Our study offers an insight on the complex genetic networks that modulate PUE in rice. The MQTLs, CGs, and superior CG haplotypes identified in our study are useful in the combination of beneficial alleles for PUE in rice

    Assessing the Effect of a Major Quantitative Locus for Phosphorus Uptake (<i>Pup1</i>) in Rice (<i>O. sativa</i> L.) Grown under a Temperate Region

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    Water and phosphorus (P) fertilizer are two of the most critical inputs in rice cultivation. Irrigation and chemical fertilizers are becoming limiting factors under climate change and urbanization, which is leading to significant losses in yield. The Pup1 quantitative trait locus (QTL) confers tolerance to P starvation through enhanced early-stage root vigor and P uptake in indica rice grown in the tropics. Whether the QTL works in temperate rice genetic backgrounds grown in temperate regions remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we introgressed the Pup1 QTL into three temperate rice varieties—MS11, TR22183, and Dasanbyeo—using marker-assisted backcrossing and high-density genotyping. The selected lines all harbored the full Pup1 QTL with recurrent parent genome recovery rates ranging from 66.5% to 99.8%. Under the rainfed and P non-supplied conditions, Pup1 introgression lines did not show clear advantages over the recurrent parents in terms of vegetative growth and grain yield per plant, but exhibited enhanced yield responses to P application, except in Dasanbyeo, which a temperate rice that is genetically similar to indica. Our results suggest that Pup1 confers enhanced P uptake in temperate rice and that the efficacy of Pup1 might depend on the subspecific genomic background of the rice, whether it is japonica or indica

    Early Vigor of a Pyramiding Line Containing Two Quantitative Trait Loci, Phosphorus Uptake 1 (Pup1) and Anaerobic Germination 1 (AG1) in Rice (O. Sativa L.)

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    Direct-seeded rice is one of the solutions against the issues of limited labor and time in the rice cropping system. Improved useful traits, such as fertilizer uptake and anaerobic germination, are needed to increase yield and efficiency in the direct seeding system in rice. Pup1 (Phosphorous uptake1) containing PSTOL1 is useful in improving the phosphate uptake under rainfed/upland conditions. OsTPP7 is the major gene of AG1 (Anaerobic Germination), which shows anaerobic germination. IR64-Pup1-AG1 (I-PA) was developed by pyramiding Pup1 and AG1. Around 20% of the chromosomal segments from the donor remained in I-PA. Phenotypic analysis revealed that I-PA showed better phenotypic performance under low and normal P conditions by enhancing the root system and tiller numbers during the early stage. Significantly better P uptake capacity of I-PA was observed upon a P-supplied soil condition. The coleoptile length and germination rate of I-PA showed tolerance under anaerobic-germinated conditions. PSTOL1 and OsTPP7 were independently expressed under different P conditions of soils, as well as anaerobic conditions. The newly developed breeding lines, I-PA, showed early vigor capacity through a high number of tillers, better P uptake, and germination in low-oxygen conditions. It will be a useful and improved breeding line for direct seeding rice breeding programs

    Characterization of the Common Japonica-Originated Genomic Regions in the High-Yielding Varieties Developed from Inter-Subspecific Crosses in Temperate Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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    The inter-subspecific crossing between indica and japonica subspecies in rice have been utilized to improve the yield potential of temperate rice. In this study, a comparative study of the genomic regions in the eight high-yielding varieties (HYVs) was conducted with those of the four non-HYVs. The Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) mapping on the Nipponbare reference genome identified a total of 14 common genomic regions of japonica-originated alleles. Interestingly, the HYVs shared japonica-originated genomic regions on nine chromosomes, although they were developed through different breeding programs. A panel of 94 varieties was classified into four varietal groups with 38 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 38 genes residing in the japonica-originated genomic regions and 16 additional trait-specific SNPs. As expected, the japonica-originated genomic regions were only present in the japonica (JAP) and HYV groups, except for Chr4-1 and Chr4-2. The Wx gene, located within Chr6-1, was present in the HYV and JAP variety groups, while the yield-related genes were conserved as indica alleles in HYVs. The japonica-originated genomic regions and alleles shared by HYVs can be employed in molecular breeding programs to further develop the HYVs in temperate rice

    Genome-Wide Association Study of Root System Development at Seedling Stage in Rice

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    Root network structure plays a crucial role in growth and development processes in rice. Longer, more branched root structures help plants to assimilate water and nutrition from soil, support robust plant growth, and improve resilience to stresses such as disease. Understanding the molecular basis of root development through screening of root-related traits in rice germplasms is critical to future rice breeding programs. This study used a small germplasm collection of 137 rice varieties chosen from the Korean rice core set (KRICE_CORE) to identify loci linked to root development. Two million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used as the genotype, with maximum root length (MRL) and total root weight (TRW) in seedlings used as the phenotype. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) combined with Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Kinship matrix analysis identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 3, 6, and 8. Two QTLs were linked to MRL and two were related to TRW. Analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) decay identified a 230 kb exploratory range for detection of candidate root-related genes. Candidates were filtered using RNA-seq data, gene annotations, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and five previously characterized genes related to root development were identified, as well as four novel candidate genes. Promoter analysis of candidate genes showed that LOC_Os03g08880 and LOC_Os06g13060 contained SNPs with the potential to impact gene expression in root-related promoter motifs. Haplotype analysis of candidate genes revealed diverse haplotypes that were significantly associated with phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results indicate that LOC_Os03g08880 and LOC_Os06g13060 are strong candidate genes for root development functions. The significant haplotypes identified in this study will be beneficial in future breeding programs for root improvement

    Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Cucurbita moschata Based on Genome-Wide High-Quality SNPs

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    Pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata) are one of the most important economic crops in genus Cucurbita worldwide. They are a popular food resource and an important rootstock resource for various Cucurbitaceae. Especially, C. moschata is widely used as a rootstock for the commercial production of bloomless cucumbers in East Asia. Since the genetic diversity of the commercial rootstock varieties is narrow, there has been an increasing demand for the trait development of abiotic and biotic stress tolerance breeding. In this study, 2071 high-quality SNPs that were distributed evenly across 20 chromosomes of pumpkins were discovered through the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis of 610 accessions of C. moschata germplasm with a global origin. Using these SNPs, various analyses of the genetic diversity and the population structure were performed. Three subgroups were clustered from the germplasm collection, which included East Asia, Africa, and America, and these areas were included the most in each subgroup. Among those groups, accessions from Africa and South Asia showed the highest genetic diversity, which was followed by the Mexico accessions. This result reflected that large gene pools that consist of various native landraces have been conserved in those of countries. Based on the genetic diversity, we finally constructed the C. moschata core collection, which included 67 representative accessions from the 610 germplasms. Five morphological traits that are important in commercial grafting and rootstock seed production, which include the cotyledon length, the cotyledon width, the hypocotyl length, the internode length, and the number of female flowers, were investigated for three years and used to confirm the validity of the core collection selection. The results are expected to provide valuable information about the genetic structure of the worldwide C. moschata germplasm and help to create new gene pools to develop genetically diverse rootstock breeding materials

    Novel allelic variant of Lpa1 gene associated with a significant reduction in seed phytic acid content in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

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    In plants, myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6), also known as phytic acid (PA), is a major component of organic phosphorus (P), and accounts for up to 85% of the total P in seeds. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), PA mainly accumulates in rice bran, and chelates mineral cations, resulting in mineral deficiencies among brown rice consumers. Therefore, considerable efforts have been focused on the development of low PA (LPA) rice cultivars. In this study, we performed genetic and molecular analyses of OsLpa1, a major PA biosynthesis gene, in Sanggol, a low PA mutant variety developed via chemical mutagenesis of Ilpum rice cultivar. Genetic segregation and sequencing analyses revealed that a recessive allele, lpa1-3, at the OsLpa1 locus (Os02g0819400) was responsible for a significant reduction in seed PA content in Sanggol. The lpa1-3 gene harboured a point mutation (C623T) in the fourth exon of the predicted coding region, resulting in threonine (Thr) to isoleucine (Ile) amino acidsubstitution at position 208 (Thr208Ile). Three-dimensional analysis of Lpa1 protein structure indicated that myo-inositol 3-monophosphate [Ins(3)P1] could bind to the active site of Lpa1, with ATP as a cofactor for catalysis. Furthermore, the presence of Thr208 in the loop adjacent to the entry site of the binding pocket suggests that Thr208Ile substitution is involved in regulating enzyme activity via phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that Thr208Ile substitution in lpa1-3 reduces Lpa1 enzyme activity in Sanggol, resulting in reduced PA biosynthesis

    Identification and Characterization of LARGE EMBRYO, a New Gene Controlling Embryo Size in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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    Abstract Background Although embryo accounts for only 2–3% of the total weight of a rice grain, it is a good source of various nutrients for human health. Because enlarged embryo size causes increase of the amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds stored within rice grain, giant embryo mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are excellent genetic resources for improving the nutritional value of rice grains. Results Three giant embryo mutants, including large embryo (le), giant embryo (ge) and super-giant embryo (ge s ), with variable embryo size were used in this study. We investigated whether genes controlling embryo size in these mutants (le, ge and ge s ) were allelic to each other. Although ge and ge s was allelic to GIANT EMBRY (GE), le was not allelic to ge and ge s in allelism test. The GE gene carried a unique nucleotide substitution in each of the two mutants (ge and ge s ), resulting in non-synonymous mutations in exon 2 of GE in both mutants. However, the GE gene of the le mutant did not carry any mutation, suggesting that the enlarged embryo phenotype of le was governed by another gene. Using map-based cloning, we mapped the LE gene to the short arm of chromosome 3. The le mutant showed mild enlargement in embryo size, which resulted from an increase in the size of scutellar parenchyma cells. The LE encodes a C3HC4-type RING finger protein and was expressed to relatively high levels in seeds at a late developmental stage. Knockdown of LE expression using RNA interference increased the embryo size of rice grains, confirming the role of LE in determining the embryo size. Conclusion Overall, we identified a new gene controlling embryo size in rice. Phenotypic and molecular characterization results suggest that the le mutant will serve as a valuable resource for developing new rice cultivars with large embryos and nutrient-dense grains

    Genetic Dissection of Grain Nutritional Traits and Leaf Blight Resistance in Rice

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    Colored rice is rich in nutrition and also a good source of valuable genes/quantitative trait loci (QTL) for nutrition, grain quality, and pest and disease resistance traits for use in rice breeding. Genome-wide association analysis using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is useful in precisely detecting QTLs and genes. We carried out genome-wide association analysis in 152 colored rice accessions, using 22,112 SNPs to map QTLs for nutritional, agronomic, and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) resistance traits. Wide variations and normal frequency distributions were observed for most of the traits except anthocyanin content and BLB resistance. The structural and principal component analysis revealed two subgroups. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed 74.3% of the marker pairs in complete LD, with an average LD distance of 1000 kb and, interestingly, 36% of the LD pairs were less than 5 Kb, indicating high recombination in the panel. In total, 57 QTLs were identified for ten traits at p &lt; 0.0001, and the phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTLs varied from 9% to 18%. Interestingly, 30 (53%) QTLs were co-located with known or functionally-related genes. Some of the important candidate genes for grain Zinc (Zn) and BLB resistance were OsHMA9, OsMAPK6, OsNRAMP7, OsMADS13, and OsZFP252, and Xa1, Xa3, xa5, xa13 and xa26, respectively. Red rice genotype, Sayllebon, which is high in both Zn and anthocyanin content, could be a valuable material for a breeding program for nutritious rice. Overall, the QTLs identified in our study can be used for QTL pyramiding as well as genomic selection. Some of the novel QTLs can be further validated by fine mapping and functional characterization. The results show that pigmented rice is a valuable resource for mineral elements and antioxidant compounds; it can also provide novel alleles for disease resistance as well as for yield component traits. Therefore, large opportunities exist to further explore and exploit more colored rice accessions for use in breeding

    Sugary Endosperm is Modulated by Starch Branching Enzyme IIa in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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    Abstract Background Starch biosynthesis is one of the most important pathways that determine both grain quality and yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Sugary endosperm, sugary-1 (sug-1), is a mutant trait for starch biosynthesis. Rice plants carrying sug-1 produce grains that accumulate water-soluble carbohydrates instead of starch, even after maturity. Although this trait enhances the diversity of grain quality, sugary endosperm rice has hardly been commercialized due to the severely wrinkled grains and subsequent problems in milling. This study was conducted to identify the genes responsible for the sug-h phenotype through a map-based cloning technology. Results We induced a mild sugary mutant, sugary-h (sug-h) through the chemical mutagenesis on the Korean japonica cultivar Hwacheong. Grains of the sug-h mutant were translucent and amber-colored, and the endosperm appeared less wrinkled than sug-1, whereas the soluble sugar content was fairly high. These characteristics confer greater marketability to the sug-h mutant. Genetic analyses indicated that the sug-h mutant phenotype was controlled by a complementary interaction of two recessive genes, Isoamylase1 (OsISA1), which was reported previously, and Starch branching enzyme IIa (OsBEIIa), which was newly identified in this study. Complementation tests indicated that OsBEIIa regulated the properties of sugary endosperm. Conclusions Complementary interactions between the starch biosynthesis genes OsISA1 and OsBEIIa determine the mild sugary endosperm mutant, sugary-h, in rice. Our finding may facilitate the breeding of sugaryendosperm rice for commercial benefit
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