816 research outputs found

    Co-infection with three mycoviruses stimulates growth of a Monilinia fructicola isolate on nutrient medium, but does not induce hypervirulence in a natural host

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    Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa are the most destructive fungal species infecting stone fruit (Prunus species). High-throughput cDNA sequencing of M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates collected from stone fruit orchards revealed that 14% of isolates were infected with one or more of three mycoviruses: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2, genus Hypovirus), Fusarium poae virus 1 (FPV1, genus Betapartitivirus), and Botrytis virus F (BVF, genus Mycoflexivirus). Isolate M196 of M. fructicola was co-infected with all three viruses, and this isolate was studied further. Several methods were applied to cure M196 of one or more mycoviruses. Of these treatments, hyphal tip culture either alone or in combination with antibiotic treatment generated isogenic lines free of one or more mycoviruses. When isogenic fungal lines were cultured on nutrient agar medium in vitro, the triple mycovirus-infected parent isolate M196 grew 10% faster than any of the virus-cured isogenic lines. BVF had a slight inhibitory effect on growth, and FPV1 did not influence growth. Surprisingly, after inoculation to fruits of sweet cherry, there were no significance differences in disease progression between isogenic lines, suggesting that these mycoviruses did not influence the virulence of M. fructicola on a natural host

    Presence of chondroitin sulphate and requirement for heparan sulphate biosynthesis in the developing zebrafish inner ear

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    Epithelial morphogenesis to form the semicircular canal ducts of the zebrafish inner ear depends on the production of the large glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, which is thought to contribute to the driving force that pushes projections of epithelium into the lumen of the otic vesicle. Proteoglycans are also implicated in otic morphogenesis: several of the genes coding for proteoglycan core proteins, together with enzymes that synthesise and modify their polysaccharide chains, are expressed in the developing zebrafish inner ear. In this study, we demonstrate the highly specific localisation of chondroitin sulphate to the sites of epithelial projection outgrowth in the ear, present before any morphological deformation of the epithelium. Staining for chondroitin sulphate is also present in the otolithic membrane, whereas the otoliths are strongly positive for keratan sulphate. We show that heparan sulphate biosynthesis is critical for normal epithelial projection outgrowth, otolith growth and tethering. In the ext2 mutant ear, which has reduced heparan sulphate levels, but continues to produce hyaluronan, epithelial projections are rudimentary, and do not grow sufficiently to meet and fuse to form the pillars of tissue that normally span the otic lumen. Staining for chondroitin sulphate and expression of versican b, a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan core protein gene, persist abnormally at high levels in the unfused projections of the ext2 mutant ear. We propose a model for wild-type epithelial projection outgrowth in which hyaluronan and proteoglycans are linked to form a hydrated gel that fills the projection core, with both classes of molecule playing essential roles in zebrafish semicircular canal morphogenesis

    Developmental contexts and features of elite academy football players: Coach and player perspectives

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    Player profiling can reap many benefits; through reflective coach-athlete dialogue that produces a profile the athlete has a raised awareness of their own development, while the coach has an opportunity to understand the athlete's viewpoint. In this study, we explored how coaches and players perceived the development features of an elite academy footballer and the contexts in which these features are revealed, in order to develop a player profile to be used for mentoring players. Using a Delphi polling technique, coaches and players experienced a number of 'rounds' of expressing their opinions regarding player development contexts and features, ultimately reduced into a consensus. Players and coaches had differing priorities on the key contexts of player development. These contexts, when they reflect the consensus between players and coaches were heavily dominated by ability within the game and training. Personal, social, school, and lifestyle contexts featured less prominently. Although 'discipline' was frequently mentioned as an important player development feature, coaches and players disagreed on the importance of 'training'

    Further studies on a hybrid cell-surface antigen associated with human chromosome 11 using a monoclonal antibody

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    A monoclonal antibody has been obtained that recognizes an antigen encoded by human chromosome 11. We present evidence that this monoclonal antibody recognizes the same or a similar antigenic activity as that previously called a 1 . Genetic information necessary for a 1 expression and recognition by the monoclonal antibody both map to 11p13 → 11pter. Mutants that have lost a 1 are no longer recognized by the monoclonal antibody. The macroglycolipid fraction of human erythrocyte membranes which contains the a 1 antigenic activity is able to convert antigen-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells into cells which are killed by the monoclonal antibody plus complement.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45556/1/11188_2005_Article_BF01543049.pd

    Dust Devil Tracks

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    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth’s surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ∼1 m and ∼1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550–850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300–1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand-sized material that is eroded from the outer vortex area of a dust devil is redeposited in annular patterns in the central vortex region. This type of DDT can also be found in on Mars in orbital image data, and although in situ studies are lacking, terrestrial analog studies, laboratory work, and numerical modeling suggest they have the same formation mechanism as those on Earth. Finally, bright DDTs are characterized by their continuous track pattern and high albedo compared to their undisturbed surroundings. They are found on both planets, but to date they have only been analyzed in situ on Earth. Here, the destruction of aggregates of dust, silt and sand by dust devils leads to smooth surfaces in contrast to the undisturbed rough surfaces surrounding the track. The resulting change in photometric properties occurs because the smoother surfaces have a higher reflectance compared to the surrounding rough surface, leading to bright DDTs. On Mars, the destruction of surficial dust-aggregates may also lead to bright DDTs. However, higher reflective surfaces may be produced by other formation mechanisms, such as dust compaction by passing dust devils, as this may also cause changes in photometric properties. On Mars, DDTs in general are found at all elevations and on a global scale, except on the permanent polar caps. DDT maximum areal densities occur during spring and summer in both hemispheres produced by an increase in dust devil activity caused by maximum insolation. Regionally, dust devil densities vary spatially likely controlled by changes in dust cover thicknesses and substrate materials. This variability makes it difficult to infer dust devil activity from DDT frequencies. Furthermore, only a fraction of dust devils leave tracks. However, DDTs can be used as proxies for dust devil lifetimes and wind directions and speeds, and they can also be used to predict lander or rover solar panel clearing events. Overall, the high DDT frequency in many areas on Mars leads to drastic albedo changes that affect large-scale weather patterns

    Exhaled nitric oxide is associated with inflammatory biomarkers and risk of acute respiratory exacerbations in children with HIV‐associated chronic lung disease

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    Objectives Chronic lung disease is a recognized complication in children with HIV. Acute respiratory exacerbations (ARE) are common among this group and cause significant morbidity. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a known marker of local airway inflammation. We investigated the association between eNO and ARE, biomarkers of systemic inflammation, and the effect of azithromycin on eNO levels. Methods Individuals aged 6–19 years with HIV-associated chronic lung disease in Harare, Zimbabwe, were enrolled in a placebo-controlled randomized trial investigating the effect of 48-week azithromycin treatment on lung function and ARE. eNO levels and biomarkers were measured at inclusion and after treatment in a consecutively enrolled subset of participants. Linear regression and generalized linear models were used to study associations between eNO and ARE, biomarkers, and the effect of azithromycin on eNO levels. Results In total, 172 participants were included in this sub-study, 86 from the placebo group and 86 from the azithromycin group. Participants experiencing at least one ARE during follow-up had significantly higher eNO levels at baseline than participants who did not (geometric mean ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.24, p = 0.015), adjusted for trial arm, age, sex and history of tuberculosis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, -7, and -10 were significantly associated with higher baseline eNO levels. At 48 weeks, azithromycin treatment did not affect eNO levels (geometric mean ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.72–1.03, p = 0.103). Conclusion Higher baseline eNO levels were a risk factor for ARE. eNO was associated with proinflammatory biomarkers previously found to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The potential use of eNO as a marker of inflammation and risk factor for ARE in HIV-associated chronic lung disease needs further investigation

    The recovery umbrella in the world of elite sport: Do not forget the coaching and performance staff

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    In the field of sports science, the recovery umbrella is a trending topic, and even more so in the world of elite sports. This is evidenced by the significant increase in scientific publications during the last 10 years as teams look to find a competitive edge. Recovery is recognized to be an integral component to assist athlete preparation in the restoration of physical and psychological function, and subsequently, performance in elite team sports athletes. However, the importance of recovery in team staff members (sports coaches and performance staff) in elite sports appears to be a forgotten element. Given the unrelenting intense nature of daily tasks and responsibilities of team staff members, the elite sports environment can predispose coaches to increased susceptibility to psycho-socio physiological fatigue burden, and negatively affect health, wellbeing, and performance. Therefore, the aim of this opinion was to (1) develop an educational recovery resource for team staff members, (2) identify organizational task-specific fatigue indicators and barriers to recovery and self-care in team staff members, and (3) present recovery implementation strategies to assist team staff members in meeting their organizational functions. It is essential that we do not forget the coaching and performance staff in the recovery process. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland


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    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which prostheses with no readily available evidence to support their use are being implanted in primary total hip arthroplasty. DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. DATA SOURCES: The 9th annual report of the National Joint Registry of England and Wales (NJR) was analysed to identify prostheses with an Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel rating of "unclassified" or "pre-entry" used in primary total hip arthroplasty in 2011. A systematic review of those prostheses was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, OVID, and Google databases. STUDY SELECTION: Prostheses used in primary total hip arthroplasty as published in the NJR's 9th annual report were analysed. Only literature that included the name of the prosthesis was included. Literature yielded in the search results was excluded if it reported animal, non-orthopaedic, non-total hip arthroplasty, or non-device related studies. RESULTS: The systematic review found that 24% (57/235) of all hip replacement implants available to surgeons in the UK have no evidence for their clinical effectiveness. It also shows that 10,617 (7.8%) of the 136,593 components used in primary hip replacements in 2011 were implanted without readily identifiable evidence of clinical effectiveness. These comprised 157 cemented stems (0.5% of 34,655 implanted), 936 (2.8% of 33,367) uncemented stems, 1732 (7.1% of 24,349) cemented cups, and 7577 (17.1% of 44,222) uncemented cups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a considerable proportion of prostheses available to orthopaedic surgeons have no readily available evidence of clinical effectiveness to support their use. Concern exists about the current system of device regulation, and the need for a revised process for introducing new orthopaedic devices is highlighted

    Detector Description and Performance for the First Coincidence Observations between LIGO and GEO

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    For 17 days in August and September 2002, the LIGO and GEO interferometer gravitational wave detectors were operated in coincidence to produce their first data for scientific analysis. Although the detectors were still far from their design sensitivity levels, the data can be used to place better upper limits on the flux of gravitational waves incident on the earth than previous direct measurements. This paper describes the instruments and the data in some detail, as a companion to analysis papers based on the first data.Comment: 41 pages, 9 figures 17 Sept 03: author list amended, minor editorial change

    Search for displaced vertices arising from decays of new heavy particles in 7 TeV pp collisions at ATLAS

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    We present the results of a search for new, heavy particles that decay at a significant distance from their production point into a final state containing charged hadrons in association with a high-momentum muon. The search is conducted in a pp-collision data sample with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 33 pb^-1 collected in 2010 by the ATLAS detector operating at the Large Hadron Collider. Production of such particles is expected in various scenarios of physics beyond the standard model. We observe no signal and place limits on the production cross-section of supersymmetric particles in an R-parity-violating scenario as a function of the neutralino lifetime. Limits are presented for different squark and neutralino masses, enabling extension of the limits to a variety of other models.Comment: 8 pages plus author list (20 pages total), 8 figures, 1 table, final version to appear in Physics Letters