4,392 research outputs found

    Characterizing the variation of propagation constants in multicore fibre

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    We demonstrate a numerical technique that can evaluate the core-to-core variations in propagation constant in multicore fibre. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo process, we replicate the interference patterns of light that has coupled between the cores during propagation. We describe the algorithm and verify its operation by successfully reconstructing target propagation constants in a fictional fibre. Then we carry out a reconstruction of the propagation constants in a real fibre containing 37 single-mode cores. We find that the range of fractional propagation constant variation across the cores is approximately ±2×105\pm2 \times 10^{-5}.Comment: 17 pages; preprint format; 5 figures. Submitted to Optics Expres

    Electromagnetic Momentum in Dispersive Dielectric Media

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    When the effects of dispersion are included, neither the Abraham nor the Minkowski expression for electromagnetic momentum in a dielectric medium gives the correct recoil momentum for absorbers or emitters of radiation. The total momentum density associated with a field in a dielectric medium has three contributions: (i) the Abraham momentum density of the field, (ii) the momentum density associated with the Abraham force, and (iii) a momentum density arising from the dispersive part of the response of the medium to the field, the latter having a form evidently first derived by D.F. Nelson [Phys. Rev. A 44, 3985 (1991)]. All three contributions are required for momentum conservation in the recoil of an absorber or emitter in a dielectric medium. We consider the momentum exchanged and the force on a polarizable particle (e.g., an atom or a small dielectric sphere) in a host dielectric when a pulse of light is incident upon it, including the dispersion of the dielectric medium as well as a dispersive component in the response of the particle to the field. The force can be greatly increased in slow-light dielectric media.Comment: 9 pages. To be published by Optics Communication

    Assessing the potential of autonomous submarine gliders for ecosystem monitoring across multiple trophic levels (plankton to cetaceans) and pollutants in shallow shelf seas

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    A combination of scientific, economic, technological and policy drivers is behind a recent upsurge in the use of marine autonomous systems (and accompanying miniaturized sensors) for environmental mapping and monitoring. Increased spatial–temporal resolution and coverage of data, at reduced cost, is particularly vital for effective spatial management of highly dynamic and heterogeneous shelf environments. This proof-of-concept study involves integration of a novel combination of sensors onto buoyancy-driven submarine gliders, in order to assess their suitability for ecosystem monitoring in shelf waters at a variety of trophic levels. Two shallow-water Slocum gliders were equipped with CTD and fluorometer to measure physical properties and chlorophyll, respectively. One glider was also equipped with a single-frequency echosounder to collect information on zooplankton and fish distribution. The other glider carried a Passive Acoustic Monitoring system to detect and record cetacean vocalizations, and a passive sampler to detect chemical contaminants in the water column. The two gliders were deployed together off southwest UK in autumn 2013, and targeted a known tidal-mixing front west of the Isles of Scilly. The gliders’ mission took about 40 days, with each glider travelling distances of >1000 km and undertaking >2500 dives to depths of up to 100 m. Controlling glider flight and alignment of the two glider trajectories proved to be particularly challenging due to strong tidal flows. However, the gliders continued to collect data in poor weather when an accompanying research vessel was unable to operate. In addition, all glider sensors generated useful data, with particularly interesting initial results relating to subsurface chlorophyll maxima and numerous fish/cetacean detections within the water column. The broader implications of this study for marine ecosystem monitoring with submarine gliders are discussed

    Climate response to off-equatorial stratospheric sulfur injections in three Earth system models – Part 2: Stratospheric and free-tropospheric response

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    The paper constitutes Part 2 of a study performing a first systematic inter-model comparison of the atmospheric responses to stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) at various single latitudes in the tropics, as simulated by three state-of-the-art Earth system models – CESM2-WACCM6, UKESM1.0, and GISS-E2.1-G. Building on Part 1 (Visioni et al., 2023) we demonstrate the role of biases in the climatological circulation and specific aspects of the model microphysics in driving the inter-model differences in the simulated sulfate distributions. We then characterize the simulated changes in stratospheric and free-tropospheric temperatures, ozone, water vapor, and large-scale circulation, elucidating the role of the above aspects in the surface SAI responses discussed in Part 1. We show that the differences in the aerosol spatial distribution can be explained by the significantly faster shallow branches of the Brewer–Dobson circulation in CESM2, a relatively isolated tropical pipe and older tropical age of air in UKESM, and smaller aerosol sizes and relatively stronger horizontal mixing (thus very young stratospheric age of air) in the two GISS versions used. We also find a large spread in the magnitudes of the tropical lower-stratospheric warming amongst the models, driven by microphysical, chemical, and dynamical differences. These lead to large differences in stratospheric water vapor responses, with significant increases in stratospheric water vapor under SAI in CESM2 and GISS that were largely not reproduced in UKESM. For ozone, good agreement was found in the tropical stratosphere amongst the models with more complex microphysics, with lower stratospheric ozone changes consistent with the SAI-induced modulation of the large-scale circulation and the resulting changes in transport. In contrast, we find a large inter-model spread in the Antarctic ozone responses that can largely be explained by the differences in the simulated latitudinal distributions of aerosols as well as the degree of implementation of heterogeneous halogen chemistry on sulfate in the models. The use of GISS runs with bulk microphysics demonstrates the importance of more detailed treatment of aerosol processes, with contrastingly different stratospheric SAI responses to the models using the two-moment aerosol treatment; however, some problems in halogen chemistry in GISS are also identified that require further attention. Overall, our results contribute to an increased understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms as well as identifying and narrowing the uncertainty in model projections of climate impacts from SAI.</p

    Ethyl 4-(3-benzoyl­thio­ureido)benzoate

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    The title compound, C17H16N2O3S, crystallizes in the thio­amide form with an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond across the thio­urea system. Mol­ecules are connected in chains parallel to [10] by hydrogen bonds from the second thio­urea N—H group to the benzoate C=O function

    1-(4-Acetyl­phen­yl)-3-butyrylthio­urea

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    The title compound, C13H16N2O2S, crystallizes in the thio­amide form with an intra­molecular hydrogen bond of type N—H⋯Obutyr­yl. Mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to [10] by a further hydrogen bond of type N—H⋯Oacet­yl. C—H⋯O and C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds are also present

    Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques

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    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals

    Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z~5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56

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    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet Cluster, based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep HST/ACS F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z~5-6 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to HUDF and GOODS, the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high redshift galaxies and - in case they are multiply imaged - confirm their redshifts.Comment: 12 pages, Accepted for publication in Ap
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