3,951 research outputs found

    Knowledge flow across inter-firm networks: the influence of network resources, spatial proximity, and firm size

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    The objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics and nature of the networks firms utilize to access knowledge and facilitate innovation. The paper draws on the notion of network resources, distinguishing two types: social capital – consisting of the social relations and networks held by individuals; and network capital – consisting of the strategic and calculative relations and networks held by firms. The methodological approach consists of a quantitative analysis of data from a survey of firms operating in knowledge-intensive sectors of activity. The key findings include: social capital investment is more prevalent among firms frequently interacting with actors from within their own region; social capital investment is related to the size of firms; firm size plays a role in knowledge network patterns; and network dynamism is an important source of innovation. Overall, firms investing more in the development of their inter-firm and other external knowledge networks enjoy higher levels of innovation. It is suggested that an over-reliance on social capital forms of network resource investment may hinder the capability of firms to manage their knowledge networks. It is concluded that the link between a dynamic inter-firm network environment and innovation provides an alternative thesis to that advocating the advantage of network stability

    Governance: public governance to social innovation?

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    ArticleThis paper reviews governance and public governance related to an emerging area of policy interest – social innovation. The European Commission’s White Paper on European Governance (2001) focused on openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence in public policy as characteristics of good governance. The EC has prioritised social innovation to address policy problems. Yet, the extant literature and research on social innovation is sparse. The paper questions whether it is a new mode of governance which contributes to good governance or a continuum of neoliberal reforms of the state which alters the relationship between the state, market and civil society

    Mapping GDP growth in the East Midlands and Yorkshire & Humber

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    This report outlines the findings of a study examining the economic structure and dynamics of the East Midlands and Yorkshire and Humber regions of the UK, using the logic of firm and labour agglomerations and their contribution to GDP as the basis for the analysis. 1.2 The project was undertaken by the Enterprise Research and Development Unit (ERDU) at the University of Lincoln. The main aim of the project was to examine GDP growth in the two regions in order to understand the dynamics and structure of regional economic activity and explore the implications for regional development. 1.3 Because GDP provides a value for an economy’s output, changes in GDP can highlight the changing state of a region’s economy. Thus, GDP provides a benchmark for the performance of an economy which will be comparable across nations and regions. 1.4 While it is a useful indicator, GDP can be viewed as a set of figures which are the result of an accounting procedure. This reporting of figures covers the dynamics of an economy in that we know the end result, i.e. the total value of the economy but lack an understanding of how that figure is generated. What is also required is an understanding of the structure of an economy and how this may affect changes in GDP. 1.5 The approach adopted in this study has been to ‘decompose’ GDP in order to understand its component parts and link this to the structure of a regional economy. In doing this we depart from a traditional ‘macroeconomic’ analysis in that the report also examines policy interventions and the geographic structure of the two region’s economies. 1.6 As there are many actors and policy initiatives within a region, it made sense to consider a sample of these organisations to acquire a sense and ‘flavour’ of the different and distinctive approaches undertaken. GDP Growth in the East Midlands and Yorkshire & Humber Page 9 of 104 1.7 While the size of regional economies dwarfs the budgets of regional, and sub- regional, agencies involved in policy development and intervention, organisations can play important stimulus, leverage and demonstration roles in regional economic development. For example, a programme that involves expenditure of £1m will not make a large contribution to a region with GDP of £60bn. However, if the results of the programme improve the productivity of the workforce then there will be ‘knock-on’ impacts. Keynes termed these ‘multiplier effects’ and can be an important source of regional economic growth. 1.8 Good and effective practice is also likely to stimulate improvements in practice, and hence impact and knock-on effects, throughout a region (and vice-versa), indicating the importance of development organisations and the premium that can be placed on ensuring their effectiveness and impact. 1.9 The five main goals of the project are to: • Develop an outline framework of a regional economy in order to understand the relevant actors and processes within regions; • Summarise and evaluate existing data on both regional economies; • Identify the sub-regional ‘building blocks’ of the regions, i.e. the location of economic activity and the reasons underpinning this; • Map and assess strategic interventions in the regions in order to evaluate the effects of policy interventions on the regional economies; • Develop a framework for measuring the impact of interventions on GD

    Open innovation and the formation of university–industry links in the food manufacturing and technology sector: evidence from the UK

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    Purpose Despite typically being regarded as ‘low-tech,’ the Food Manufacturing and Technology Sector is increasingly turning to open innovation practices involving collaboration with universities in order to innovate. Given the broad range of activities undertaken by this sector and the fact that it utilises analytical, synthetic, and symbolic knowledge for innovation, it makes an interesting case study on the factors that influence the formation of University-Industry links. Design/methodology/approach Using data from 249 collaborative projects that occurred between UK universities and food manufacturing and technology firms, the analysis utilises a logistic regression model based on a ‘synthetic counterfactual approach’ to modelling the probability a collaborative link will be established with one university and not others. Findings The results suggest that organisational proximity, conceptualised through the presence of prior ties between actors, have the largest influence on the formation of U-I links. In addition, spatial and technological proximity between actors also have a positive influence on link formation. This result suggests that the specificity of knowledge to the food sector is important in the formation of these U-I links. Research limitations/implications 2 The results suggest that the open innovation practices of food manufacturing and technology firms are like other sectors, even though their innovation practices are considered to be different. However, the limitations of the paper mean that these findings may be specific to firms in the food manufacturing and technology sector in the UK. Originality/value The food sector is under-represented in empirical studies on university collaboration; this paper addresses this and provides new insights into the formation of these links

    Nostalgia By The Pint

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    Tree Cover Variability in the District of Columbia

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    Urban forests are increasingly a focus of interest as urbanized populations grow and urban areas expand. Urban forests change as trees are planted, grow, die, and are removed. These processes alter a city's tree cover over time, but this inherent dynamism is poorly understood. Better understanding of how tree cover is a variable land cover component will enhance knowledge of the urban environment and provide new perspectives for management of urban resources. In this study, tree cover variability within a major urban center was observed over a 20 year period. Changes in tree cover proportion were measured in the District of Columbia between 1984-2004 utilizing highly calibrated satellite remote sensing data. Testing of alternate methodologies demonstrated that an approach utilizing support vector regression provided most consistent accuracy across land use types. Tree cover maps were validated using aerial photography imagery and data from field surveys. Between 1984-2004, the city-wide tree cover remained between 22.1(+/-2.9)% and 28.8(+/-2.9)% of total land surface area. The District of Columbia did not experience an overall increase or decrease in total tree canopy area. Spatial patterns of tree cover variability were investigated to identify local scale changes in tree cover and connections with urban land use. Within the city, greatest variability was observed in low density residential zones. Tree cover proportion in these zones declined 7.4(+/-5.4)% in the years between 1990-1996 and recovered after 1996. Changes in tree cover were observed with high resolution aerial photography to determine relative contribution from fluctuation in the number of standing trees and changes in crown sizes. Land cover conversion removed dense tree cover from 50.2 hectares of the city's land surface between 1984-2004. The results demonstrate that tree cover variability in the District of Columbia occurred primarily within low population density residential areas. Neighborhoods within these zones were analyzed to identify factors correlated with tree cover. Implications of the results include enhanced understanding of the possible impact of urban forest management, and how a focus on low density residential zones is appropriate in setting goals for expansion of urban tree cover

    Responses to Poverty: Essays in Public Economics and Labor

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    Throughout my work, I seek to understand policy issues that have consequences for poverty. Data limitations and non-random assignment of policy treatment make meaningful analysis challenging in what I argue are important areas of policy; to overcome the empirical challenge I combine clean natural experiments with rich administrative data to make progress in each literature. In this collection of essays I look at policy factors for three important determinants of economic wellbeing: labor supply, human capital formation, and labor demand. (1) Regarding labor demand, my coauthor and I study the impact of unemployment insurance benefit extensions on the employment of displaced workers. Using a sharp policy change and rich administrative data I procured, we are able to make considerable progress. (2) Teacher quality is the most powerful school-input in human capital formation. To understand how teacher pay affects the quality of teachers, I leverage a federal policy that provides additional compensation to teachers serving sufficiently poor schools. Using a regression discontinuity design and rich education data, I am able to provide further light on this pressing policy issue. (3) Finally, I assess the consequences of a payroll tax that firms pay on the labor demand. Because the tax increases after recessions, workers may bear the tax when the labor market is already weak. I use a discontinuity in the tax schedule and administrative UI data to estimate the consequences of the tax as a deterrent and the effect of the tax once raised

    A correlational study of emotional intelligence and aggression in adolescents.

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    The relationship between adolescent emotional intelligence and adolescent aggression was investigated. Seventy one 7th and 8th grade students participated in the study. The students ranged in age from 11 to 14 years. All subjects completed the Baron Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Baron EQ-i:YV) as a measure of emotional intelligence. They also completed an Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452--459). Pearson product-moment correlations were examined indicating an overall significant negative correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Aggression (r = -.693, p \u3c .001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to further investigate relationships between components of Aggression and Emotional Intelligence. Analysis indicated that Stress Management (beta = -.736, p \u3c .001) and Intrapersonal (beta = -.268, p \u3c .001) measures were significant predictors of Physical Aggression. A second stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that Anger (beta = .591, p \u3c .001) and Hostility (beta = .292, p \u3c .05) were also significant predictors of Physical Aggression. A one-way analysis of variance indicated significant gender differences with males scoring higher on Physical Aggression (p \u3c .001) and Total Aggression (p \u3c .01) and females scoring higher on Emotional Intelligence (p \u3c .05). Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2003 .J65. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 42-02, page: 0368. Adviser: Larry Morton. Thesis (M.Ed.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2003

    How students at a Christian university understand the university\u27s faith committment

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    Faith commitment is central to the identity and mission of institutions identifying themselves specifically as Christian Universities. Therefore, their effectiveness in communicating that faith commitment to their students is essential to their success. This project explored how students at one such university gained their understanding of their university’s faith commitment. Its exploratory intent and deliberate focus on the student perspective merited an inductive approach and research methods reflecting a qualitative paradigm. Data were collected at one university using multiple student focus groups. Ultimately, this data shaped a valuable ”insider” perspective on how myriad encounters with university people, programs, and policies shaped students’ individual understanding of the university’s faith commitment. Focus group discussions proved rich and revealed students’ awareness of the university’s faith commitment, appreciation for its distinctiveness, and affirmation of its intentions to make this commitment apparent to campus constituents. Students consistently described the university’s faith commitment as both central to its identity and significant in their own decisions to enroll and persist. They proved attentive to its expression in diverse contexts and encounters
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