1,542 research outputs found

    Bridge improvement work: Maximising non-linear optical performance in polyoxometalate derivatives

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    New phenyl and stilbene-bridged polyoxometalate (POM) charge-transfer chromophores with diphenylamino donor groups produce, respectively, the highest intrinsic and absolute quadratic hyperpolarisabilities measured for such species. The β0,zzz obtained for phenyl bridge – at 180 × 10-30 esu – is remarkable for a short conjugated system while changing to the stilbene (260 × 10-30 esu) produces a substantial increase in non-linearity for a minimal red-shift in the absorption profile. Together with TD-DFT calculations, the results show that maximising conjugation in the π-bridge is vital to high performance in such “POMophores”

    Second international consensus report on gaps and opportunities for the clinical translation of precision diabetes medicine

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    Precision medicine is part of the logical evolution of contemporary evidence-based medicine that seeks to reduce errors and optimize outcomes when making medical decisions and health recommendations. Diabetes affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, many of whom will develop life-threatening complications and die prematurely. Precision medicine can potentially address this enormous problem by accounting for heterogeneity in the etiology, clinical presentation and pathogenesis of common forms of diabetes and risks of complications. This second international consensus report on precision diabetes medicine summarizes the findings from a systematic evidence review across the key pillars of precision medicine (prevention, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis) in four recognized forms of diabetes (monogenic, gestational, type 1, type 2). These reviews address key questions about the translation of precision medicine research into practice. Although not complete, owing to the vast literature on this topic, they revealed opportunities for the immediate or near-term clinical implementation of precision diabetes medicine; furthermore, we expose important gaps in knowledge, focusing on the need to obtain new clinically relevant evidence. Gaps include the need for common standards for clinical readiness, including consideration of cost-effectiveness, health equity, predictive accuracy, liability and accessibility. Key milestones are outlined for the broad clinical implementation of precision diabetes medicine.</p

    Second international consensus report on gaps and opportunities for the clinical translation of precision diabetes medicine

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    Abstract: Precision medicine is part of the logical evolution of contemporary evidence-based medicine that seeks to reduce errors and optimize outcomes when making medical decisions and health recommendations. Diabetes affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, many of whom will develop life-threatening complications and die prematurely. Precision medicine can potentially address this enormous problem by accounting for heterogeneity in the etiology, clinical presentation and pathogenesis of common forms of diabetes and risks of complications. This second international consensus report on precision diabetes medicine summarizes the findings from a systematic evidence review across the key pillars of precision medicine (prevention, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis) in four recognized forms of diabetes (monogenic, gestational, type 1, type 2). These reviews address key questions about the translation of precision medicine research into practice. Although not complete, owing to the vast literature on this topic, they revealed opportunities for the immediate or near-term clinical implementation of precision diabetes medicine; furthermore, we expose important gaps in knowledge, focusing on the need to obtain new clinically relevant evidence. Gaps include the need for common standards for clinical readiness, including consideration of cost-effectiveness, health equity, predictive accuracy, liability and accessibility. Key milestones are outlined for the broad clinical implementation of precision diabetes medicine. A systematic review of evidence, across the key pillars of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, outlines milestones that need to be met to enable the broad clinical implementation of precision medicine in diabetes care

    Immune and metabolic markers for identifying and investigating severe Coronavirus disease and Sepsis in children and young people (pSeP/COVID ChYP study): protocol for a prospective cohort study

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    Introduction Early recognition and appropriate management of paediatric sepsis are known to improve outcomes. A previous system’s biology investigation of the systemic immune response in neonates to sepsis identified immune and metabolic markers that showed high accuracy for detecting bacterial infection. Further gene expression markers have also been reported previously in the paediatric age group for discriminating sepsis from control cases. More recently, specific gene signatures were identified to discriminate between COVID-19 and its associated inflammatory sequelae. Through the current prospective cohort study, we aim to evaluate immune and metabolic blood markers which discriminate between sepses (including COVID-19) from other acute illnesses in critically unwell children and young persons, up to 18 years of age.Methods and analysis We describe a prospective cohort study for comparing the immune and metabolic whole-blood markers in patients with sepsis, COVID-19 and other illnesses. Clinical phenotyping and blood culture test results will provide a reference standard to evaluate the performance of blood markers from the research sample analysis. Serial sampling of whole blood (50 μL each) will be collected from children admitted to intensive care and with an acute illness to follow time dependent changes in biomarkers. An integrated lipidomics and RNASeq transcriptomics analyses will be conducted to evaluate immune-metabolic networks that discriminate sepsis and COVID-19 from other acute illnesses. This study received approval for deferred consent.Ethics and dissemination The study has received research ethics committee approval from the Yorkshire and Humber Leeds West Research Ethics Committee 2 (reference 20/YH/0214; IRAS reference 250612). Submission of study results for publication will involve making available all anonymised primary and processed data on public repository sites.Trial registration number NCT04904523

    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on domiciliary care workers in Wales, UK: a data linkage cohort study using the SAIL Databank

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    Objectives To quantify population health risks for domiciliary care workers (DCWs) in Wales, UK, working during the COVID-19 pandemic.Design A population-level retrospective study linking occupational registration data to anonymised electronic health records maintained by the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank in a privacy-protecting trusted research environment.Setting Registered DCW population in Wales.Participants Records for all linked DCWs from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021.Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcome was confirmed COVID-19 infection; secondary outcomes included contacts for suspected COVID-19, mental health including self-harm, fit notes, respiratory infections not necessarily recorded as COVID-19, deaths involving COVID-19 and all-cause mortality.Results Confirmed and suspected COVID-19 infection rates increased over the study period to 24% by 30 November 2021. Confirmed COVID-19 varied by sex (males: 19% vs females: 24%) and age (&gt;55 years: 19% vs &lt;35 years: 26%) and were higher for care workers employed by local authority social services departments compared with the private sector (27% and 23%, respectively). 34% of DCWs required support for a mental health condition, with mental health-related prescribing increasing in frequency when compared with the prepandemic period. Events for self-harm increased from 0.2% to 0.4% over the study period as did the issuing of fit notes. There was no evidence to suggest a miscoding of COVID-19 infection with non-COVID-19 respiratory conditions. COVID-19-related and all-cause mortality were no greater than for the general population aged 15–64 years in Wales (0.1% and 0.034%, respectively). A comparable DCW workforce in Scotland and England would result in a comparable rate of COVID-19 infection, while the younger workforce in Northern Ireland may result in a greater infection rate.Conclusions While initial concerns about excess mortality are alleviated, the substantial pre-existing and increased mental health burden for DCWs will require investment to provide long-term support to the sector’s workforce

    Multiomic signatures of body mass index identify heterogeneous health phenotypes and responses to a lifestyle intervention.

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    Multiomic profiling can reveal population heterogeneity for both health and disease states. Obesity drives a myriad of metabolic perturbations and is a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Here we report an atlas of cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in 1,111 blood analytes associated with variation in body mass index (BMI), as well as multiomic associations with host polygenic risk scores and gut microbiome composition, from a cohort of 1,277 individuals enrolled in a wellness program (Arivale). Machine learning model predictions of BMI from blood multiomics captured heterogeneous phenotypic states of host metabolism and gut microbiome composition better than BMI, which was also validated in an external cohort (TwinsUK). Moreover, longitudinal analyses identified variable BMI trajectories for different omics measures in response to a healthy lifestyle intervention; metabolomics-inferred BMI decreased to a greater extent than actual BMI, whereas proteomics-inferred BMI exhibited greater resistance to change. Our analyses further identified blood analyte-analyte associations that were modified by metabolomics-inferred BMI and partially reversed in individuals with metabolic obesity during the intervention. Taken together, our findings provide a blood atlas of the molecular perturbations associated with changes in obesity status, serving as a resource to quantify metabolic health for predictive and preventive medicine

    2018–2019 field seasons of the Maize Genomes to Fields (G2F) G x E project

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    Objectives This report provides information about the public release of the 2018–2019 Maize G X E project of the Genomes to Fields (G2F) Initiative datasets. G2F is an umbrella initiative that evaluates maize hybrids and inbred lines across multiple environments and makes available phenotypic, genotypic, environmental, and metadata information. The initiative understands the necessity to characterize and deploy public sources of genetic diversity to face the challenges for more sustainable agriculture in the context of variable environmental conditions. Data description Datasets include phenotypic, climatic, and soil measurements, metadata information, and inbred genotypic information for each combination of location and year. Collaborators in the G2F initiative collected data for each location and year; members of the group responsible for coordination and data processing combined all the collected information and removed obvious erroneous data. The collaborators received the data before the DOI release to verify and declare that the data generated in their own locations was accurate. ReadMe and description files are available for each dataset. Previous years of evaluation are already publicly available, with common hybrids present to connect across all locations and years evaluated since this project’s inception

    Cyber-Human Systems, Space Technologies, and Threats

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    CYBER-HUMAN SYSTEMS, SPACE TECHNOLOGIES, AND THREATS is our eighth textbook in a series covering the world of UASs / CUAS/ UUVs / SPACE. Other textbooks in our series are Space Systems Emerging Technologies and Operations; Drone Delivery of CBNRECy – DEW Weapons: Emerging Threats of Mini-Weapons of Mass Destruction and Disruption (WMDD); Disruptive Technologies with applications in Airline, Marine, Defense Industries; Unmanned Vehicle Systems & Operations On Air, Sea, Land; Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies and Operations; Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain: Protecting USA’s Advanced Air Assets, 2nd edition; and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the Cyber Domain Protecting USA’s Advanced Air Assets, 1st edition. Our previous seven titles have received considerable global recognition in the field. (Nichols & Carter, 2022) (Nichols, et al., 2021) (Nichols R. K., et al., 2020) (Nichols R. , et al., 2020) (Nichols R. , et al., 2019) (Nichols R. K., 2018) (Nichols R. K., et al., 2022)https://newprairiepress.org/ebooks/1052/thumbnail.jp
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