218 research outputs found

    Trust and Strength of Family Ties: New Experimental Evidence

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    We provide a conceptual replication of an experimental study that uncovered a robust correlation between the strength of individuals’ family ties and their distrust of strangers, striving to establish whether the link is causal. Using a different subjects pool and an online setting, we repeat the binary trust-game experiment from Ermisch and Gambetta and enrich it by manipulating the payoffs to create a low-trust and high-trust environment. The key finding is corroborated, but as expected, only in the high-trust environment. The two environments further allow us to impose a diff-and-diff design on the data, which rules out selection of low-trusting individuals into strong-tied families and gives us indirect evidence of causation, namely, that having strong family ties stunts the development of trust in strangers. Our findings support the emancipatory theory of trust proposed by Toshio Yamagishi and could be interpreted as uncovering the micro foundations of classic ethnographic studies, such as that by Edward Banfield, which described how subcultures fostering tight bonds within families or small groups make cooperation harder to be achieved

    Trust and Strength of Family Ties: New Experimental Evidence

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    We provide a conceptual replication of an experimental study that uncovered a robust correlation between the strength of individuals’ family ties and their distrust of strangers, striving to establish whether the link is causal. Using a different subjects pool and an online setting, we repeat the binary trust-game experiment from Ermisch and Gambetta and enrich it by manipulating the payoffs to create a low-trust and high-trust environment. The key finding is corroborated, but as expected, only in the high-trust environment. The two environments further allow us to impose a diff-and-diff design on the data, which rules out selection of low-trusting individuals into strong-tied families and gives us indirect evidence of causation, namely, that having strong family ties stunts the development of trust in strangers. Our findings support the emancipatory theory of trust proposed by Toshio Yamagishi and could be interpreted as uncovering the micro foundations of classic ethnographic studies, such as that by Edward Banfield, which described how subcultures fostering tight bonds within families or small groups make cooperation harder to be achieved

    Educational reproduction in Europe: A descriptive account

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    Background: Conventional studies of intergenerational social reproduction are based on a retrospective design, sampling adults and linking their status to that of their parents. This approach yields conditional estimates of intergenerational relationships. Recent studies have taken a prospective approach, following a birth cohort forward to examine how it is socially reproduced. This permits the estimation of relationships of social reproduction that do not condition on the existence of at least one child.Objective: We examine whether the relationship between conditional and unconditional estimates found for the United States and Great Britain also holds for a diverse range of European countries.Methods: We examine educational reproduction among men and women born 1930–1950 in 12 countries using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and compare unconditional and conditional estimates.Results: We ïŹnd striking similarities in the relationship between unconditional and conditional estimates throughout Europe. Among women, the difference between conditional and unconditional estimates generally increased with education. Women with more education were less likely to reproduce themselves educationally because they were less likely to marry. The educational gradient, in terms of the probability of having a child who attained a tertiary degree, was more pronounced in the South and East of Europe than in the North and West.Conclusions: The gap between conditional and unconditional estimates indicates that the more common retrospective approach tends to overstate the extent of educational reproduction.Contribution: This is the ïŹrst comparative study adopting a prospective approach to intergenerational social reproduction.</p

    English fertility heads south: Understanding the recent decline

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    Background: Fertility in England fell substantially during the past decade. The total fertility rate reached its historically lowest level in 2020. Objective: To improve our understanding of the decline in English fertility by using data on individual women during 2009-2020 from Understanding Society, which is a panel survey of the members of approximately 40,000 households. Methods: Estimation of a model of age and parity-specific birth rates on individual data, including year-effects, and cross-validation of it with external sources from registration data. Translation of the parameter estimates into more easily interpreted concepts such as period parity progression ratios and the total fertility rate (along with the standard errors for each). Results: The decline in first-birth rates appears to be primarily responsible for the decline in the TFR during the past decade, and women with an education below degree level experienced a larger fertility decline. Conclusions: If recent period fertility patterns are sustained, England is embarking on a regime of a high level of childlessness not seen since that among women born in the early 1920s. Contribution: Individual-level panel data is used to estimate a model of parity-specific birth rates, which is cross-validated against registration data and used to provide insights into what lies behind the recent decline in English fertility

    The distributional impact of COVID-19: Geographic variation in mortality in England

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    Background: By their nature, the impact of epidemics on mortality varies geographically, suggesting that the geographical impact of an epidemic implies a social impact. Objective: To examine the association between two measures of the social composition of a local area and age- and sex-standardised Covid-19 and other mortality in the period 1 March to 31 July 2020. The measures are how deprived an area is and what proportion of its population is non-white. Methods: Using spatial autoregressive regression we analyse geographical variation in age- and sex-standardised Covid-19 mortality among English local authorities between 1 March and 31 July 2020 in relation to measures of social composition, and we compare it with mortality from non-Covid sources in the same period, and with all-causes mortality in 2018. Results: Areas with higher social deprivation have a higher Covid-19 mortality rate, but the association is much weaker than between social deprivation and mortality rates more generally. An area's proportion non-white has a strong positive association with Covid-19 mortality, in contrast to a negative association with 2020 non-Covid and with 2018 mortality. Conclusions: Covid-19 mortality is related to the social composition of areas in different ways than current non-Covid mortality or past mortality. Contribution: The paper provides the first demonstration of the distinct distributional impact of mortality in relation to the Covid-19 virus by the social composition of areas in England

    A Service of zbw Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Who delays childbearing? The relationships between fertility, education and personality traits Who delays childbearing? The relationships between fertility, e

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    Standard-Nutzungsbedingungen: Die Dokumente auf EconStor dĂŒrfen zu eigenen wissenschaftlichen Zwecken und zum Privatgebrauch gespeichert und kopiert werden. Sie dĂŒrfen die Dokumente nicht fĂŒr öffentliche oder kommerzielle Zwecke vervielfĂ€ltigen, öffentlich ausstellen, öffentlich zugĂ€nglich machen, vertreiben oder anderweitig nutzen. Sofern die Verfasser die Dokumente unter Open-Content-Lizenzen (insbesondere CC-Lizenzen) zur VerfĂŒgung gestellt haben sollten, gelten abweichend von diesen Nutzungsbedingungen die in der dort genannten Lizenz gewĂ€hrten Nutzungsrechte. Great part of the empirical literature sees education as one of the main driving forces of childbearing postponement. The idea is that more educated women face higher maternity costs than less educated women because they have to forgo higher wages or put on hold better careers when having a child. In this paper we use the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) to explore other possible determinants. Terms of use: Documents in We assess the role of personality traits in timing of childbearing and investigate whether, and in what way, personality traits can explain the differences in maternity timing between more and less educated women. The personality traits are measured by the Big Five, collected for the first time in 2005. The Big Five personality traits correspond to the following five main personality dimensions: Extraversion (vs Introversion), Agreeableness (vs Antagonism), Conscientiousness (vs Lack of Direction), Neuroticism (vs Emotional Stability) and Openness (vs Closedness to Experience). To the best of our knowledge there is no other study examining the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and timing of motherhood. Given that nowadays women&apos;s fertility reflects, to a greater extent, their basic preferences and that personality traits are intimately related to individual&apos;s preferences, we expect to find an association between personality traits and fertility. Indeed, we find that whereas high levels of Agreeableness, Extroversion and Neuroticism accelerate childbirth, high levels of Conscientiousness and Openness are associated with childbirth postponement. The nature of the relationship between education and postponement of fertility is far less clear. We explore two possible ways through which personality traits might help explain the fertility timing gap between more and less educated women: one is that some of the personality traits that drive some women to study more also influence their fertility behaviour; the other one is that individual differences in personality traits translate into variation in time to first birth especially among more educated women. Our results support both hypotheses i.e. on the one hand, personality traits influence both education and fertility decisions; on the other hand, more educated women do not equally delay childbirth compared with less educated women: the more &quot;open-minded&quot; ones postpone childbearing for longer. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, this paper assesses the influence of personality traits on the timing of motherhood and investigates whether, and in what way, personality traits can explain the differences in maternity timing between more and less educated women. We estimate a log-logistic model of the time to first child birth and show that there is a statistically significant relationship between the Big Five personality traits and timing to motherhood. The results also show that within the more educated group, women who have an average to high score on Openness have lower hazards of childbirth

    Migration Versus Immobility, and Ties to Parents

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    We investigate the association between geographic proximity to parents and the likelihood of moving longer distances (e.g. at least 40 km), using British panel data from the Understanding Society study and probit regression. We also look at the extent to which this association diminishes by introducing measures of frequency of contact, interaction with neighbors and length of residence. Using a number of different models and samples, we find that living far from parents increases longer distance mobility. Seeing parents weekly and more interactions with neighbors reduce longer distance mobility, but its association with parental proximity remains substantial. The positive effect of living far from parents on the likelihood of moving longer distances is also found in subsamples of those who have lived in their current residence for 5 years or less and of the highly educated, while the negative effect of seeing parents weekly is also found in these subsamples as well as in a subsample of those living close to parents. Even though endogeneity cannot be ruled out completely, these findings show a robust association between family ties and the likelihood of moving a long distance

    Educational reproduction in Europe: A descriptive account

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    BACKGROUND Conventional studies of intergenerational social reproduction are based on a retrospective design, sampling adults and linking their status to that of their parents. This approach yields conditional estimates of intergenerational relationships. Recent studies have taken a prospective approach, following a birth cohort forward to examine how it is socially reproduced. This permits the estimation of relationships of social reproduction that do not condition on the existence of at least one child. OBJECTIVE We examine whether the relationship between conditional and unconditional estimates found for the United States and Great Britain also holds for a diverse range of European countries. METHODS We examine educational reproduction among men and women born 1930-1950 in 12 countries using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and compare unconditional and conditional estimates. RESULTS We find striking similarities in the relationship between unconditional and conditional estimates throughout Europe. Among women, the difference between conditional and unconditional estimates generally increased with education. Women with more education were less likely to reproduce themselves educationally because they were less likely to marry. The educational gradient, in terms of the probability of having a child who attained a tertiary degree, was more pronounced in the South and East of Europe than in the North and West. CONCLUSIONS The gap between conditional and unconditional estimates indicates that the more common retrospective approach tends to overstate the extent of educational reproduction. CONTRIBUTION This is the first comparative study adopting a prospective approach to intergenerational social reproduction.Funding Agencies|John Fell Oxford University Press (OUP) Research Fund; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [DNR 445-2013-7681, DNR 340-2013-5460]; European CommissionEuropean Commission Joint Research Centre [QLK6-CT-2001-00360, SHARE-I3: RII-CT-2006-062193, COMPARE: CIT5-CT-2005-028857, SHARELIFE: CIT4-CT-2006-028812, 211909, 227822, 261982]; German Ministry of Education and ResearchFederal Ministry of Education &amp; Research (BMBF); Max Planck SocietyMax Planck SocietyFoundation CELLEX; US National Institute on AgingUnited States Department of Health &amp; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute on Aging (NIA) [U01_AG09740-13S2, P01_AG005842, P01_AG08291, P30_AG12815, R21_AG025169, Y1-AG-4553-01, IAG_BSR06-11, OGHA_04-064, HHSN271201300071C]</p

    Trends in Educational Mobility: How Does China Compare to Europe and the United States?

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    Despite impressive rise in school enrollment rates over the past few decades, there are concerns about growing inequality of educa- tional opportunity in China. In this paper, we examine the level and trend of educational mobility in China, and compare them to those of Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the US. Educational mo- bility is defined as the association between parents’ and children’s educational attainment. We show that China’s economic boom has been accompanied by a large decline in relative educational mobility chances, as measured by odds ratios. To elaborate, relative rates of educational mobility in China were, by international standards, quite high for those who grew up under state socialism. For the most recent cohorts, however, educational mobility rates have dropped to a level that is comparable to those of European countries, though it is still higher than the US level.Our research is supported by an ESRC research grant, award number ES/L015927/1
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