151 research outputs found

    Search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

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    International audienceIntermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) span the approximate mass range 100−105 M⊙, between black holes (BHs) that formed by stellar collapse and the supermassive BHs at the centers of galaxies. Mergers of IMBH binaries are the most energetic gravitational-wave sources accessible by the terrestrial detector network. Searches of the first two observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo did not yield any significant IMBH binary signals. In the third observing run (O3), the increased network sensitivity enabled the detection of GW190521, a signal consistent with a binary merger of mass ∼150 M⊙ providing direct evidence of IMBH formation. Here, we report on a dedicated search of O3 data for further IMBH binary mergers, combining both modeled (matched filter) and model-independent search methods. We find some marginal candidates, but none are sufficiently significant to indicate detection of further IMBH mergers. We quantify the sensitivity of the individual search methods and of the combined search using a suite of IMBH binary signals obtained via numerical relativity, including the effects of spins misaligned with the binary orbital axis, and present the resulting upper limits on astrophysical merger rates. Our most stringent limit is for equal mass and aligned spin BH binary of total mass 200 M⊙ and effective aligned spin 0.8 at 0.056 Gpc−3 yr−1 (90% confidence), a factor of 3.5 more constraining than previous LIGO-Virgo limits. We also update the estimated rate of mergers similar to GW190521 to 0.08 Gpc−3 yr−1.Key words: gravitational waves / stars: black holes / black hole physicsCorresponding author: W. Del Pozzo, e-mail: [email protected]† Deceased, August 2020

    Potential Cardioprotective Effects and Lipid Mediator Differences in Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplemented Mice Given Chemotherapy.

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    Many commonly used chemotherapies induce mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac muscle, which leads to cardiotoxicity and heart failure later in life. Dietary long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) have demonstrated cardioprotective function in non-chemotherapy models of heart failure, potentially through the formation of LC n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive lipid metabolites. However, it is unknown whether dietary supplementation with LC n-3 PUFA can protect against chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. To test this, 36 female ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were randomized in a two-by-two factorial design to either a low (0 g/kg EPA + DHA) or high (12.2 g/kg EPA + DHA) LC n-3 PUFA diet, and received either two vehicle or two chemotherapy (9 mg/kg anthracycline + 90 mg/kg cyclophosphamide) tail vein injections separated by two weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured as well as heart gene expression and fatty acid composition. Heart mitochondria were isolated using differential centrifugation. Mitochondrial isolate oxylipin and N-acylethanolamide levels were measured by mass spectrometry after alkaline hydrolysis. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated some chemotherapy-induced differences (Myh7, Col3a1) in heart gene expression, and significantly altered various lipid species in cardiac mitochondrial preparations including several epoxy fatty acids [17(18)-EpETE] and N-acylethanolamines (arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA), suggesting a possible functional link between heart lipids and cardiotoxicity

    Potential Cardioprotective Effects and Lipid Mediator Differences in Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplemented Mice Given Chemotherapy

    No full text
    Many commonly used chemotherapies induce mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac muscle, which leads to cardiotoxicity and heart failure later in life. Dietary long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) have demonstrated cardioprotective function in non-chemotherapy models of heart failure, potentially through the formation of LC n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive lipid metabolites. However, it is unknown whether dietary supplementation with LC n-3 PUFA can protect against chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. To test this, 36 female ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were randomized in a two-by-two factorial design to either a low (0 g/kg EPA + DHA) or high (12.2 g/kg EPA + DHA) LC n-3 PUFA diet, and received either two vehicle or two chemotherapy (9 mg/kg anthracycline + 90 mg/kg cyclophosphamide) tail vein injections separated by two weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured as well as heart gene expression and fatty acid composition. Heart mitochondria were isolated using differential centrifugation. Mitochondrial isolate oxylipin and N-acylethanolamide levels were measured by mass spectrometry after alkaline hydrolysis. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated some chemotherapy-induced differences (Myh7, Col3a1) in heart gene expression, and significantly altered various lipid species in cardiac mitochondrial preparations including several epoxy fatty acids [17(18)-EpETE] and N-acylethanolamines (arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA), suggesting a possible functional link between heart lipids and cardiotoxicity

    The population of merging compact binaries inferred using gravitational waves through GWTC-3

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    We report on the population properties of 76 compact binary mergers detected with gravitational waves below a false alarm rate of 1 per year through GWTC-3. The catalog contains three classes of binary mergers: BBH, BNS, and NSBH mergers. We infer the BNS merger rate to be between 10 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}} and 1700 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}} and the NSBH merger rate to be between 7.8 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3}\, yr^{-1}} and 140 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}} , assuming a constant rate density versus comoving volume and taking the union of 90% credible intervals for methods used in this work. Accounting for the BBH merger rate to evolve with redshift, we find the BBH merger rate to be between 17.9 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3}\, yr^{-1}} and 44 Gpc3yr1\rm{Gpc^{-3}\, yr^{-1}} at a fiducial redshift (z=0.2). We obtain a broad neutron star mass distribution extending from 1.20.2+0.1M1.2^{+0.1}_{-0.2} M_\odot to 2.00.3+0.3M2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.3} M_\odot. We can confidently identify a rapid decrease in merger rate versus component mass between neutron star-like masses and black-hole-like masses, but there is no evidence that the merger rate increases again before 10 MM_\odot. We also find the BBH mass distribution has localized over- and under-densities relative to a power law distribution. While we continue to find the mass distribution of a binary's more massive component strongly decreases as a function of primary mass, we observe no evidence of a strongly suppressed merger rate above 60M\sim 60 M_\odot. The rate of BBH mergers is observed to increase with redshift at a rate proportional to (1+z)κ(1+z)^{\kappa} with κ=2.91.8+1.7\kappa = 2.9^{+1.7}_{-1.8} for z1z\lesssim 1. Observed black hole spins are small, with half of spin magnitudes below χi0.25\chi_i \simeq 0.25. We observe evidence of negative aligned spins in the population, and an increase in spin magnitude for systems with more unequal mass ratio

    The population of merging compact binaries inferred using gravitational waves through GWTC-3