123 research outputs found

    A Regulatory Module Controlling Homeostasis of a Plant Immune Kinase

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    Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) perceive microbial and endogenous molecular patterns to activate immune signaling. The cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 acts downstream of multiple PRRs as a rate-limiting component, whose phosphorylation and accumulation are central to immune signal propagation. Previous work identified the calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 and heterotrimeric G proteins as negative and positive regulators of BIK1 accumulation, respectively. However, mechanisms underlying this regulation remain unknown. Here we show that the plant U-box proteins PUB25 and PUB26 are homologous E3 ligases that mark BIK1 for degradation to negatively regulate immunity. We demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G proteins inhibit PUB25/26 activity to stabilize BIK1, whereas CPK28 specifically phosphorylates conserved residues in PUB25/26 to enhance their activity and promote BIK1 degradation. Interestingly, PUB25/26 specifically target non-activated BIK1, suggesting that activated BIK1 is maintained for immune signaling. Our findings reveal a multi-protein regulatory module that enables robust yet tightly regulated immune responses

    Local GABAergic signaling within sensory ganglia controls peripheral nociceptive transmission

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    The integration of somatosensory information is generally assumed to be a function of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe fully functional GABAergic communication within rodent peripheral sensory ganglia and show that it can modulate transmission of pain-related signals from the peripheral sensory nerves to the CNS. We found that sensory neurons express major proteins necessary for GABA synthesis and release and that sensory neurons released GABA in response to depolarization. In vivo focal infusion of GABA or GABA reuptake inhibitor to sensory ganglia dramatically reduced acute peripherally induced nociception and alleviated neuropathic and inflammatory pain. In addition, focal application of GABA receptor antagonists to sensory ganglia triggered or exacerbated peripherally induced nociception. We also demonstrated that chemogenetic or optogenetic depolarization of GABAergic dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo reduced acute and chronic peripherally induced nociception. Mechanistically, GABA depolarized the majority of sensory neuron somata, yet produced a net inhibitory effect on the nociceptive transmission due to the filtering effect at nociceptive fiber T-junctions. Our findings indicate that peripheral somatosensory ganglia represent a hitherto underappreciated site of somatosensory signal integration and offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Recent advances in catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide

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    Measurement of the W boson polarisation in ttňČt\bar{t} events from pp collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV in the lepton + jets channel with ATLAS