200 research outputs found

    Geometric Confinement-Mediated Mechanical Tension Directs Patterned Differentiation of Mouse ESCs into Organized Germ Layers

    No full text
    The self-organization of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into organized tissues with three distinct germ layers is critical to morphogenesis and early development. While the regulation of this self-organization by soluble signals is well established, the involvement of mechanical force gradients in this process remains unclear due to the lack of a suitable platform to study this process. In this study, we developed a 3D microenvironment to examine the influence of mechanical tension gradients on ESC-patterned differentiation during morphogenesis by controlling the geometrical signals (shape and size) of ESC colonies. We found that changes in colony geometry impacted the germ layer pattern, with Cdx2-positive cells being more abundant at edges and in areas with high curvatures. The differentiation patterns were determined by geometry-mediated cell tension gradients, with an extraembryonic mesoderm-like layer forming in high-tension regions and ectodermal-like lineages at low-tension regions in the center. Suppression of cytoskeletal tension hindered ESC self-organization. These results indicate that geometric confinement-mediated mechanical tension plays a crucial role in linking multicellular organization to cell differentiation and impacting tissue patterning

    The annual relative contribution to the 9,082 bisphosphonate initiators identified over the entire period of interest (2003–2012).

    No full text
    <p>The dotted line represents the total number of patients aged 10 to 45 years in the study database.</p

    Characteristics of 9,082 patients in the year prior to initiating a bisphosphonate.

    No full text
    <p><sup>a</sup> Includes Paget’s disease of bone, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteomalacia.</p><p>HRT = hormone replacement therapy</p><p>Characteristics of 9,082 patients in the year prior to initiating a bisphosphonate.</p

    Potential indications for initiating bisphosphonate treatment.

    No full text
    <p>Potential indications for initiating bisphosphonate treatment.</p

    Simple Method for Preparing Superhydrophobic Paper: Spray-Deposited Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticle Coatings Exhibit High Water-Repellency and Transparency

    No full text
    Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings are deposited onto paper by spraying alcohol suspensions of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles. Superhydrophobicity depends on the aggregation states of nanoparticles, which are determined by the type of alcohol used in the suspensions. The superhydrophobicity of the paper is maintained after touching the paper with a bare finger

    Stable Dihydrogen Complexes of Cobalt(−I) Suggest an Inverse <i>trans</i>-Influence of Lewis Acidic Group 13 Metalloligands

    No full text
    A triad of d<sup>10</sup> cobalt dihydrogen complexes was synthesized by utilizing Lewis acidic group 13 metalloligands, M­[N­((<i>o</i>-C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>4</sub>)­NCH<sub>2</sub>P<sup><i>i</i></sup>Pr<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>], where M = Al, Ga, and In. These complexes have formal Co­(−I) oxidation states, representing the only coordination complexes in which dihydrogen is bound to a subvalent transition metal center. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and NMR studies support the assignment of these complexes as nonclassical dihydrogen adducts of Co­(−I)

    Graphene-Supported Single-Atom Ni as High-Performance Catalyst for Direct Methane-to-Methanol Conversion

    No full text
    Inspired by the excellent performance of NiO+ in converting CH4 to CH3OH in the gas phase and the efficiency of single-atom catalysts, we constructed a Ni–O active site on single-vacant (SV) graphene by using O3/N2O as the oxidant. Quantum chemistry calculations predict Ni/SV-graphene to be a potential catalyst for CH4-to-CH3OH conversion, outperforming Pd or Pt/SV-graphene in both the activity and selectivity. The radical pathway is favored, and the C–H bond activation is the rate-determining step, during which an electron is transferred from CH4 to the O-atom of OM/SV-graphene and pushes an electron from σM–O orbital to σM–O*. The ONi/SV-graphene has smaller σM–O* to σM–O energy gap than its Pd/Pt counterparts, thus more readily transferring the electron to activate the C–H bond, making it the best catalyst. In addition, Ni/SV-graphene is capable of recycling and avoiding overoxidizing of methanol. This study provides theoretical insights into developing efficient noble-metal-free catalysts for direct CH4-to-CH3OH conversion

    Cumulative Incidence of Melanoma, SCC and BCC.

    No full text
    <p>Cumulative Incidence of Melanoma, SCC and BCC.</p

    Simple Method for Preparing Superhydrophobic Paper: Spray-Deposited Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticle Coatings Exhibit High Water-Repellency and Transparency

    No full text
    Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings are deposited onto paper by spraying alcohol suspensions of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles. Superhydrophobicity depends on the aggregation states of nanoparticles, which are determined by the type of alcohol used in the suspensions. The superhydrophobicity of the paper is maintained after touching the paper with a bare finger

    Relationship Between Water Migration and Quality Changes of Yellowfin Tuna (<i>Thunnus albacares</i>) During Storage at 0°C and 4°C by LF-NMR

    No full text
    <p>This study investigated postmortem changes of yellowfin tuna (<i>Thunnus albacares</i>) and water migration upon storage at 0°C and 4°C as determined by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR <sup>1</sup>H). It clearly showed that with increasing storage time, sensory scores and physical evaluations (hardness, chewiness), proton density of the water, and moisture content decreased, while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), <i>K</i> value, aerobic plate counts (APCs), and psychrotrophic bacterial counts increased. The results of LF-NMR showed that <i>T</i><sub>21</sub> (trapped water) had extremely significant correlations with sensory evaluation, texture profile analysis, TVB-N, <i>K</i> value, APC, and psychrotrophic bacteria (<i>p </i>< 0.01) and established multiple linear regression. It was concluded that the LF-NMR was an important technique to evaluate storage time and temperature of yellowfin tuna’s quality in terms of water migration during low-temperature storage.</p
    corecore