2,735 research outputs found

    Additional file 1 of Targeting the NAT10/NPM1 axis abrogates PD-L1 expression and improves the response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy

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    Additional file 1: Figure S1. A The correlation between NPM1 and PD-L1 (CD274) expression levels in colon cancer and skin cutaneous melanoma in the TIMER 2.0 database. B NAT10 was identified by mass spectrometry. C NPM1 and NAT10 loci were evaluated by IF staining in HCT116 cells. D MDA-MB-231 and HCT116 cells were treated with 25 ng/ml IFN-γ for 24 h, and PD-L1 expression was subsequently evaluated. E PD-L1 expression was measured by western blot (left) and qPCR (right) after NAT10 was knocked down by siRNA in A375 cell. Data are presented as the mean ± s.d. of three independent experiments. ****P < 0.0001. Figure S2. A The acetylation sites of NPM1 were detected by mass spectrometry. B PD-L1 expression was measured by western blot (right) and qPCR (left) after the indicated plasmids were transfected into MDA-MB-231 cell. C Gating strategies used for flow cytometric analyses in mouse tumor tissues. D The tumor volume of every mouse in each group (n = 8) was recorded twice a week. Data are presented as the mean ± s.d. of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; ns, not significantly different. Figure S3. A Representative images of IHC staining of NAT10 (left) and PD-L1 (right) in 40 TNBC patient tissues. B Correlation analysis between NAT10 expression and PD-L1 expression was performed in 85 colon cancer patients using two-tailed Pearson’s chi-square test. (C) PDL1 expression was measured by western blot after HCT116 cells were treated with CPTH2 for 48 h. Table S1. Multivariate analysis for OS in 85 colon cancer patients. Table S2. Correlation analysis of NAT10 expression and clinical features in 85 colon cancer patients

    An overview of application-oriented multifunctional large-scale stationary battery and hydrogen hybrid energy storage system

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    The imperative to address traditional energy crises and environmental concerns has accelerated the need for energy structure transformation. However, the variable nature of renewable energy poses challenges in meeting complex practical energy requirements. To address this issue, the construction of a multifunctional large-scale stationary energy storage system is considered an effective solution. This paper critically examines the battery and hydrogen hybrid energy storage systems. Both technologies face limitations hindering them from fully meeting future energy storage needs, such as large storage capacity in limited space, frequent storage with rapid response, and continuous storage without loss. Batteries, with their rapid response (90 %), excel in frequent short-duration energy storage. However, limitations such as a self-discharge rate (>1 %) and capacity loss (∼20 %) restrict their use for long-duration energy storage. Hydrogen, as a potential energy carrier, is suitable for large-scale, long-duration energy storage due to its high energy density, steady state, and low loss. Nevertheless, it is less efficient for frequent energy storage due to its low storage efficiency (∼50 %). Ongoing research suggests that a battery and hydrogen hybrid energy storage system could combine the strengths of both technologies to meet the growing demand for large-scale, long-duration energy storage. To assess their applied potentials, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the research status of both energy storage technologies using proposed key performance indices. Additionally, application-oriented future directions and challenges of the battery and hydrogen hybrid energy storage system are outlined from multiple perspectives, offering guidance for the development of advanced energy storage systems

    Residual Immunity from Smallpox Vaccination and Possible Protection from Mpox, China

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    Among persons born in China before 1980 and tested for vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VVT), 28.7% (137/478) had neutralizing antibodies, 71.4% (25/35) had memory B-cell responses, and 65.7% (23/35) had memory T-cell responses to VVT. Because of cross-immunity between the viruses, these findings can help guide mpox vaccination strategies in China

    RIGP-Induced Surface Modification of Cellulose for the Preparation of Amidoxime-Modified Cellulose/Graphite Oxide Composites with Enhanced Uranium Adsorption

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    Surface modification plays an important role in the design and fabrication of high-performance cellulose in many fields, especially in uranium adsorption. However, the high crystallinity of cellulose makes surface modification difficult to some extent, resulting in an impaired application performance. Herein, a radiation-initiated graft polymerization (RIGP) method is utilized to regulate the crystallinity of cellulose and improve the surface modification capability. To compensate for the weakening of the cellulose structure caused by the reduced crystallinity, graphite oxide (GO) powder is utilized as the scaffold, and the as-obtained amidoxime-modified cellulose/graphite oxide (Cel-AO/GO) composites are employed for U(VI) removal. The crystallinity of the cellulose can be effectively decreased by increasing irradiation doses, and the reduced crystallinity is proven to increase the amidoxime modification degree of cellulose. It is found that the sufficient surface amidoxime sites caused by the reduced crystallinity as well as the intrinsic carboxyl group of GO contribute synergistically to the efficient U(VI) adsorption performance. The maximum theoretical adsorption capacity of U(VI) can reach 237.5 mg·g–1 with ultrafast adsorption kinetics (90% removal in just 1 min). The adsorption process is well fitted by a pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm. After eight adsorption–desorption cycles, the absorbent still retains 85% removal. These results indicate that the strategy of crystallinity-regulation by the RIGP method will be a valid way to develop high-performance cellulose-based U(VI) adsorbents

    Positive Synergy between the Helical Poly(phenylacetylene) Backbones and the Helical <i>L</i>‑Proline Oligopeptide Pendants for Enhanced Enantioseparation Properties

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    A series of optically active helical poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPA-Pro1, PPA-Pro3, PPA-Pro6, PPA-Pro9, and PPA-Pro12) bearing different chain lengths of L-proline oligopeptide in the side chains were obtained by polymerizing the corresponding novel phenylacetylene monomers. The monomer adopted a trans-rich helix structure when the L-proline oligopeptide chain length was longer, according to the optical activities and 2D-NMR analysis. The helical structure could be maintained and significantly influenced the polymers’ helical conformation by introducing the L-proline oligopeptide to the pendants. By the way, the morphology of PPA-Pro3 was observed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and the information on the helix direction, pitch, and chain arrangement was obtained. Also, the chiral separation properties of these polymer-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The poly(phenylacetylene)s showed enhanced enantioseparation properties toward various racemates depending on the longer chain length of the L-proline oligopeptide in the pendants and the positive synergy between the helical backbone and helical side chains. Particularly, PPA-Pro9 showed comparable or even superior enantioseparation properties for racemates 2 and 9 to four commercial columns (Daicel Chiralpak or Chiralcel AD, AS, OD, and OT), indicating that these poly(phenylacetylene)-based CSPs have potential practical values. This work presented here provides inspiration for the further development of CSPs based on a new paradigm

    Bismuth Ferrite-Based Lead-Free High-Entropy Piezoelectric Ceramics

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    Piezoelectric ceramics, as essential components of actuators and transducers, have captured significant attention in both industrial and scientific research. The “entropy engineering” approach has been demonstrated to achieve excellent performance in lead-based materials. In this study, the “entropy engineering” approach was employed to introduce the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) into the bismuth ferrite (BF)-based lead-free system. By employing this strategy, a serial of novel “medium to high entropy” lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were successfully synthesized, namely (1–x)BiFeO3–x(Ba0.2Sr0.2Ca0.2Bi0.2Na0.2)TiO3 (BF–xBSCBNT, x = 0.15–0.5). Our investigation systematically examined the phase structure, domain configuration, and ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties as a function of conformational entropy. Remarkable performances with a largest strain of 0.50% at 100 kV/cm, remanent polarization ∼40.07 μC/cm2, coercive field ∼74.72 kV/cm, piezoelectric coefficient ∼80 pC/N, and d33* ∼500 pm/V were achieved in BF–0.4BSCBNT ceramics. This exceptional performance can be attributed to the presence of MPB, coexisting rhombohedral and cubic phases, along with localized nanodomains. The concept of high-entropy lead-free piezoelectric ceramics in this study provides a promising strategy for the exploration and development of the next generation of lead-free piezoelectric materials

    Catalytic Enantioselective Nucleophilic α‑Chlorination of Ketones with NaCl

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    Catalytic enantioselective α-chlorination of ketones is a highly desirable process. Different from the conventional approaches that employ corrosive electrophilic chlorination reagents, the process disclosed here employs nucleophilic chloride, aqueous NaCl solution, and even seawater, as green inexpensive chlorine sources. This mechanistically distinct and electronically opposite approach provides facile access to diverse highly enantioenriched acyclic α-chloro ketones that are less straightforward by conventional approaches. With a chiral thiourea catalyst, a range of racemic α-keto sulfonium salts underwent enantioconvergent carbon–chlorine bond formation with high efficiency and excellent enantioselectivity under mild conditions. The sulfonium motif plays a crucial triple role by permitting smooth dynamic kinetic resolution to take place via a chiral anion binding mechanism in a well-designed phase-transfer system. This protocol represents a new general platform for the asymmetric nucleophilic α-functionalization of carbonyl compounds

    Modulating Smart Mechanoluminescent Phosphors for Multistimuli Responsive Optical Wood

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    Abstract Mechanoluminescence is a smart light‐emitting phenomenon in which applied mechanical energy is directly converted into photon emissions. In particular, mechanoluminescent materials have shown considerable potential for applications in the fields of energy and sensing. This study thoroughly investigates the mechanoluminescence and long afterglow properties of singly doped and codoped Sr2MgSi2O7(SMSO) with varying concentrations of Eu2+ and Dy3+ ions. Subsequently, a comprehensive analysis of its multimode luminescence properties, including photoluminescence, mechanoluminescence, long afterglow, and X‐ray‐induced luminescence, is conducted. In addition, the density of states mapping is acquired through first‐principles calculations, confirming that the enhanced mechanoluminescence properties of SMSO primarily stem from the deep trap introduced by Dy3+. In contrast to traditional mixing with Polydimethylsiloxane, in this study, the powders are incorporated into optically transparent wood to produce a multiresponse with mechanoluminescence, long afterglow, and X‐ray‐excited luminescence. This structure is achieved by pretreating natural wood, eliminating lignin, and subsequently modifying the wood to overall modification using various smart phosphors and epoxy resin composites. After natural drying, a multifunctional composite wood structure with diverse luminescence properties is obtained. Owing to its environmental friendliness, sustainability, self‐power, and cost‐effectiveness, this smart mechanoluminescence wood is anticipated to find extensive applications in construction materials and energy‐efficient displays

    Microjunction-Modulated Selective Ammonia Sensor with P‑Type Oxides-Decorated WS<sub>2</sub> Microflakes

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    In this study, p-type oxides including NiO, Co3O4, and CuO had been heterostructured with WS2 microflakes for chemiresistive-type gas sensors at room temperature. Microjunctions formed between p-type oxides and WS2 microflakes effectively modulated the sensitivities of the sensors to ammonia. In comparison to Co3O4- or CuO-decorated WS2-based sensors in which “deep energy puddles” were formed at the microjunctions between the oxides and WS2, the fabricated NiO/WS2 heterostructure-based sensor without the formed energy puddles exhibited a better sensing performance with improved sensitivity and a faster response to gaseous 1–10 ppm of NH3. It also processes a good selectivity to some volatile organic compounds including HCHO, toluene, CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, and trimethylamine (TMA). The underlying mechanisms for the enhanced responses were examined by employing in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and density functional theory computation. The oxidization of NH3 on NiO/WS2 was much more intensified compared to those occurred on Co3O4/WS2 and CuO/WS2. NiO/WS2 has a stronger adsorption to NH3 and gains more effective charges transferred from NH3 which significantly contributes to the enhanced sensing properties

    Active Region Design With Different Crystal Orientations for High-Speed DFB Laser

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    High-speed directly modulated distributed feedback (DFB) laser is crucial for high-speed optical communication systems. The modulation bandwidth and frequency chirp of such devices are primarily affected by the differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of the quantum wells (QWs) in the active region. In this work, the optical gain properties of long wavelength AlGaInAs-InP strained quantum wells (QWs) with different crystal orientations are numerically investigated using the multi-bands k.p theory, which considers both valence-band anisotropic and nonparabolicity. Compared to the QW laser grown on a conventional (001) substrate, a higher differential gain, and smaller LEF are observed for the laser grown on the (110) substrate with the (1ˉ10){\rm{(\bar{1}10)}} plane as the mirror facet. This is primarily due to the reduced effective mass of the valence band. The dynamic characteristics of (001)-and (110)-oriented DFB laser is theoretically studied using the one-dimensional traveling wave model (1D TWM) at {\rm{25}}\;^\circ \text{C} and {\rm{95}}\;^\circ \text{C}. The simulation results show that the lower chirp and wider modulation bandwidth can be achieved for the QW laser grown on (110) substrate