19 research outputs found

    Lactobacillus Dominate in the Intestine of Atlantic Salmon Fed Dietary Probiotics

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    Probiotics, the live microbial strains incorporated as dietary supplements, are known to provide health benefits to the host. These live microbes manipulate the gut microbial community by suppressing the growth of certain intestinal microbes while enhancing the establishment of some others. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely studied as probiotics; in this study we have elucidated the effects of two fish-derived LAB types (RII and RIII) on the distal intestinal microbial communities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We employed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities in the distal intestinal content and mucus of Atlantic salmon fed diets coated with the LABs or that did not have microbes included in it. Our results show that the supplementation of the microbes shifts the intestinal microbial profile differentially. LAB supplementation did not cause any significant alterations in the alpha diversity of the intestinal content bacteria but RIII feeding increased the bacterial diversity in the intestinal mucus of the fish. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the bacterial compositions of the control and LAB-fed groups. Lactobacillus was the dominant genus in LAB-fed fish. A few members of the phyla Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaetes were also found to be abundant in the LAB-fed groups. Furthermore, the bacterial association network analysis showed that the co-occurrence pattern of bacteria of the three study groups were different. Dietary probiotics can modulate the composition and interaction of the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon

    Exposure to Yeast Shapes the Intestinal Bacterial Community Assembly in Zebrafish Larvae

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    Establishment of the early-life gut microbiota has a large influence on host development and succession of microbial composition in later life stages. The effect of commensal yeasts - which are known to create a conducive environment for beneficial bacteria - on the structure and diversity of fish gut microbiota still remains unexplored. The present study examined the intestinal bacterial community of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae exposed to two fish-derived yeasts by sequencing the V4 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rRNA. The first stage of the experiment (until 7 days post-fertilization) was performed in cell culture flasks under sterile and conventional conditions for germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CR) larvae, respectively. The second phase was carried out under standard rearing conditions, for both groups. Exposure of GF and CR zebrafish larvae to one of the yeast species Debaryomyces or Pseudozyma affected the bacterial composition. Exposure to Debaryomyces resulted in a significantly higher abundance of core bacteria. The difference was mainly due to shifts in relative abundance of taxa belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria. In Debaryomyces-exposed CR larvae, the significantly enriched taxa included beneficial bacteria such as Pediococcus and Lactococcus (Firmicutes). Furthermore, most diversity indices of bacterial communities in yeast-exposed CR zebrafish were significantly altered compared to the control group. Such alterations were not evident in GF zebrafish. The water bacterial community was distinct from the intestinal microbiota of zebrafish larvae. Our findings indicate that early exposure to commensal yeast could cause differential bacterial assemblage, including the establishment of potentially beneficial bacteria

    Succession of embryonic and the intestinal bacterial communities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals stage-specific microbial signatures

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    Host-associated microbiota undergoes a continuous transition, from the birth to adulthood of the host. These developmental stage-related transitions could lead to specific microbial signatures that could impact the host biological processes. In this study, the succession of early-life and intestinal bacterial communities of Atlantic salmon (starting from embryonic stages to 80-week post hatch; wph) was studied using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA. Stage-specific bacterial community compositions and the progressive transitions of the communities were evident in both the early life and the intestine. The embryonic communities showed lower richness and diversity (Shannon and PD whole tree) compared to the hatchlings. A marked transition of the intestinal communities also occurred during the development; Proteobacteria were dominant in the early stages (both embryonic and intestinal), though the abundant genera under this phylum were stage-specific. Firmicutes were the most abundant group in the intestine of late freshwater; Weissella being the dominant genus at 20 wph and Anaerofilum at 62 wph. Proteobacteria regained its dominance after the fish entered seawater. Furthermore, LEfSe analysis identified genera under the above - mentioned phyla that are significant features of specific stages. The environmental (water) bacterial community was significantly different from that of the fish, indicating that the host is a determinant of microbial assemblage. Overall the study demonstrated the community dynamics during the development of Atlantic salmon.</p

    Lactobacillus dominate in the intestine of Atlantic salmon fed dietary probiotics

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    Probiotics, the live microbial strains incorporated as dietary supplements, are known to provide health benefits to the host. These live microbes manipulate the gut microbial community by suppressing the growth of certain intestinal microbes while enhancing the establishment of some others. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely studied as probiotics; in this study we have elucidated the effects of two fish-derived LAB types (RII and RIII) on the distal intestinal microbial communities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We employed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities in the distal intestinal content and mucus of Atlantic salmon fed diets coated with the LABs or that did not have microbes included in it. Our results show that the supplementation of the microbes shifts the intestinal microbial profile differentially. LAB supplementation did not cause any significant alterations in the alpha diversity of the intestinal content bacteria but RIII feeding increased the bacterial diversity in the intestinal mucus of the fish. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the bacterial compositions of the control and LAB-fed groups. Lactobacillus was the dominant genus in LAB-fed fish. A few members of the phyla Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaetes were also found to be abundant in the LAB-fed groups. Furthermore, the bacterial association network analysis showed that the co-occurrence pattern of bacteria of the three study groups were different. Dietary probiotics can modulate the composition and interaction of the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon

    Macroalga-derived alginate oligosaccharide alters intestinal bacteria of atlantic salmon

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    Prebiotics are substrates intended to sculpt gut microbial communities as they are selectively utilized by the microorganisms to exert beneficial health effects on hosts. Macroalga-derived oligosaccharides are candidate prebiotics, and herein, we determined the effects of Laminaria sp.-derived alginate oligosaccharide (AlgOS) on the distal intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Using a high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing technique, we investigated the microbiota harbored in the intestinal content and mucus of the fish offered feeds supplemented with 0.5 and 2.5% AlgOS. We found that the prebiotic shifts the intestinal microbiota profile; alpha diversity was significantly reduced with 2.5% AlgOS while with 0.5% AlgOS the alteration occurred without impacting the bacterial diversity. Beta diversity analysis indicated the significant differences between control and prebiotic-fed groups. The low supplementation level of AlgOS facilitated the dominance of Proteobacteria (including Photobacterium phosphoreum, Aquabacterium parvum, Achromobacter insolitus), and Spirochaetes (Brevinema andersonii) in the content or mucus of the fish, and few of these bacteria (Aliivibrio logei, A. parvum, B. andersonii, A. insolitus) have genes associated with butyrate production. The results indicate that the low inclusion of AlgOS can plausibly induce a prebiotic effect on the distal intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon. These findings can generate further interest in the potential of macroalgae-derived oligosaccharides for food and feed applications
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