1,164 research outputs found

    Construction of the Nursing Diagnosis Ontology in Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing Unit using Nursing Process and SNOMED CT

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    PURPOSE: This study was performed to propose an ontology methodology based on standardized nursing process as framework in obstetric and gynecologic nursing practice. METHODS: The instrument used in this study was based on the nursing diagnosis classification established by North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) (2009-2011), fifth edition of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (2008), forth edition of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) (2008) developed by Iowa State University and systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT). The nursing records data were collected from electronic medical records of one hospital from August to October 2010. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-one nursing diagnosis statements used in obstetric and gynecologic nursing unit were linked standardized nursing classifications and constructed nursing diagnosis ontology including interoperability. CONCLUSION: Not only will this result be helpful to complete nurse's lack of knowledge and experience, it will also help to determine nursing diagnosis logically by using standardized nursing process. It will be utilized as the method to construct ontology including interoperability in other nursing units. It will be presented nursing interventions according to nursing diagnosis and thus will be easier to establish nursing planning. This can provide immediate feedback of the nursing process application

    Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Promotes Functional Recovery of Contused Rat Spinal Cord through Enhancement of Endogenous Cell Proliferation and Oligogenesis

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    Numerous studies have shown the benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) model and on behavioral improvement, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, to investigate possible mechanisms by which MSCs contribute to the alleviation of neurologic deficits, we examined the potential effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) on the endogenous cell proliferation and oligogenesis after SCI. SCI was injured by contusion using a weight-drop impactor and hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into the boundary zone of the injured site. Animals received a daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 7 days after treatment to identity newly synthesized cells of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells was evident. Behavior analysis revealed that locomotor functions of hUCB-MSCs group were restored significantly and the cavity volume was smaller in the MSCs-transplanted rats compared to the control group. In MSCs-transplanted group, TUNEL-positive cells were decreased and BrdU-positive cells were significantly increased rats compared with control group. In addition, more of BrdU-positive cells expressed neural stem/progenitor cell nestin and oligo-lineage cell such as NG2, CNPase, MBP and glial fibrillary acidic protein typical of astrocytes in the MSC-transplanted rats. Thus, endogenous cell proliferation and oligogenesis contribute to MSC-promoted functional recovery following SCI

    Underestimation of atypical ductal hyperplasia at sonographically guided core biopsy of the breast

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    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of underestimation of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at sonographically guided core biopsy of the breast and to identify the factors involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 3,563 lesions con secutively evaluated with sonographically guided core biopsy between January 2002 and June 2006. Histologic analysis yielded ADH in 60 of the 3,563 lesions (1.7%). The rate of underestimation of ADH was determined by dividing the number of lesions that proved to be carcinoma at surgical excision by 44, the total number of lesions evaluated with excisional biopsy. Clinical, sonographic, and core biopsy features were analyzed to identify factors that affect the rate of underestimation of ADH. RESULTS: The rate of underestimation of ADH was found to be 48% (21 of 44 lesions). Underestimation of ADH was significantly less frequent for lesions evaluated with 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy than for lesions evaluated with 14-gauge automated gun biopsy (22% [four of 18 lesions] vs 65% [17 of 26 lesions], p = 0.012). The other clinical, sonographic, and biopsy features examined did not affect the rate of underestimation of ADH. CONCLUSION: For sonographically guided core biopsy of the breast, the rate of underestimation of ADH was 48%. This rate was lower for lesions evaluated with 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy (22%) than for those evaluated with 14-gauge automated gun biopsy (65%). This finding was particularly true of smaller lesions (< or = 2.0 cm) and for lesions of the mass-only type.Supported by grant A062260 from the Innovative Research Institute for Cell Therapy, Republic of Korea

    Effect of 457 nm Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser on the Polymerization Composite Resins: Microhardness, Cross-Link Density, and Polymerization Shrinkage

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    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to test the usefulness of 457 nm diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser as a light source to cure composite resins. Materials and methods: Five different composite resins were light cured using three different light-curing units (LCUs): a DPSS 457 nm laser (LAS), a light-emitting diode (LED), and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) units. The light intensity of LAS was 560 mW/cm2, whereas LED and QTH LCUs was ∼900 mW/cm2. The degree of polymerization was tested by evaluating microhardness, cross-link density, and polymerization shrinkage. Results: Before water immersion, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 40.8 to 84.7 HV and from 31.7 to 79.0 HV on the top and bottom surfaces, respectively, and these values were 3.3–23.2% and 2.9–31.1% lower than the highest microhardness obtained using LED or QTH LCUs. Also, laser-treated specimens had lower top and bottom microhardnesses than the other LCUs treated specimens by 2.4–19.4% and 1.4–27.8%, respectively. After ethanol immersion for 24 h, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 20.3 to 63.2 HV on top and bottom surfaces, but from 24.9 to 71.5 HV when specimens were cured using the other LCUs. Polymerization shrinkage was 9.8–14.7 μm for laser-treated specimens, and these were significantly similar or lower (10.2–16.0 μm) than those obtained using the other LCUs. Conclusions: The results may suggest that the 457 nm DPSS laser can be used as a light source for light-curing dental resin composites

    Replicative genetic association study between functional polymorphisms in AVPR1A and social behavior scales of autism spectrum disorder in the Korean population

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    Abbreviations ADI-A1: Failure to use nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction; ADIA2: Failure to develop peer relationship; ADI-A3: Lack of shared enjoyment; ADI-A4: Lack of socioemotional reciprocity; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; ASD: Autism spectrum disorder; ASDS: Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale; AVP: Arginine vasopressin; AVPR1A: Arginine vasopressin receptor 1A; Df: Degree of freedom; EMSA: Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay; FBAT: Family-based association test; HBAT: Haplotype family-based association test; IRB: Institutional Review Board; K-ADI-R: Korean version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised; K-ADOS: Korean version of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; K-CBCL: Korean Child Behavior Checklist; KEDI-WISC-R: Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised; K-SMS: Korean version of the Social Maturity Scale; MAF: Minor allele frequency; PDD-NOS: Pervasive developmental disorder that were not otherwise specified; RLUs: Relative luciferase units; SCQ: Social Communication Questionnaires; SNPs: Single nucleotide polymorphisms; SRS: Social Responsiveness Scale; TDT: Transmission disequilibrium test; VABS: Vineland Adaptive BehaviorAbstract Background Arginine vasopressin has been shown to affect social and emotional behaviors, which is mediated by the arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR1A). Genetic polymorphisms in the AVPR1A promoter region have been identified to be associated with susceptibility to social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that alleles of polymorphisms in the promoter region of AVPR1A may differentially interact with certain transcriptional factors, which in turn affect quantitative traits, such as sociality, in children with autism. Methods We performed an association study between ASD and polymorphisms in the AVPR1A promoter region in the Korean population using a family-based association test (FBAT). We evaluated the correlation between genotypes and the quantitative traits that are related to sociality in children with autism. We also performed a promoter assay in T98G cells and evaluated the binding affinities of transcription factors to alleles of rs7294536. Results The polymorphisms—RS1, RS3, rs7294536, and rs10877969—were analyzed. Under the dominant model, RS1–310, the shorter allele, was preferentially transmitted. The FBAT showed that the rs7294536 A allele was also preferentially transmitted in an additive and dominant model under the bi-allelic mode. When quantitative traits were used in the FBAT, rs7294536 and rs10877969 were statistically significant in all genotype models and modes. Luciferase and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggest that the rs7294536 A/G allele results in a Nf-κB binding site that exhibits differential binding affinities depending on the allele. Conclusion These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the AVPR1A promoter region might be involved in pathophysiology of ASD and in functional regulation of the expression of AVPR1A.This work has been supported by the Healthcare Technology R&D project (no. HI12C0021) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea; the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2014R1A2A1A110 53289 and NRF-2017M3C7A1027467

    The determination of dark adaptation time using electroretinography in conscious Miniature Schnauzer dogs

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    The optimal dark adaptation time of electroretinograms (ERG's) performed on conscious dogs were determined using a commercially available ERG unit with a contact lens electrode and a built-in light source (LED-electrode). The ERG recordings were performed on nine healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The bilateral ERG's at seven different dark adaptation times at an intensity of 2.5 cd·s/m2 was performed. Signal averaging (4 flashes of light stimuli) was adopted to reduce electrophysiologic noise. As the dark adaptation time increased, a significant increase in the mean a-wave amplitudes was observed in comparison to base-line levels up to 10 min (p < 0.05). Thereafter, no significant differences in amplitude occured over the dark adaptation time. Moreover, at this time the mean amplitude was 60.30 ± 18.47 µV. However, no significant changes were observed for the implicit times of the a-wave. The implicit times and amplitude of the b-wave increased significantly up to 20 min of dark adaptation (p < 0.05). Beyond this time, the mean b-wave amplitudes was 132.92 ± 17.79 µV. The results of the present study demonstrate that, the optimal dark adaptation time when performing ERG's, should be at least 20 min in conscious Miniature Schnauzer dogs