65 research outputs found

    Clinical features affecting efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC: a Danish nationwide real-world study

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    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are implemented as standard treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in first-line and subsequent-line treatment. However, certain subgroups such as patients with older age, poor performance status (PS), and severe comorbidity are underrepresented in the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study aimed to assess overall survival (OS), treatment data, and clinical features affecting second- or subsequent-line ICI efficacy in an unselected, Danish, nationwide NSCLC population. Patients with advanced NSCLC who started nivolumab or pembrolizumab as second-line or subsequent-line treatment between 1 September 2015, and 1 October 2018, were identified from institutional records of all Danish oncology departments. Clinical and treatment data were retrospectively collected. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. Data were available for 840 patients; 49% females. The median age was 68 years (19% were ≥75 years), 19% had PS ≥2, and 36% had moderate to severe comorbidity. The median OS (mOS) was 12.2 months; 15.1 months and 10.0 months in females and males, respectively. The median time-to-treatment discontinuation (mTTD) and median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 3.2 and 5.2 months, respectively. Patients with PS ≥2 had a mOS of 4.5 months, mTTD of 1.1 month, and mPFS of 2.0 months. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, male sex (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.62), PS >0 (PS 1, HR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.52–2.33; PS ≥2, HR = 4.15, 95% CI 3.13–5.5), liver metastases (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.34–2.22), and bone metastases (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.58) were significant poor prognostic OS factors. Danish real-world patients with advanced NSCLC treated with second- or subsequent-line ICI had an OS comparable to results from RCTs. Women, frail and older patients constituted a higher proportion than in previous RCTs. Clinical features associated with poor OS were male sex, PS ≥1 (in particular PS ≥2), bone-, and liver metastases

    Spectroscopic view of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in single- and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

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    The quasiparticle spectra of atomically thin semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and their response to an ultrafast optical excitation critically depend on interactions with the underlying substrate. Here, we present a comparative time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) study of the transient electronic structure and ultrafast carrier dynamics in the single- and bilayer TMDCs MoS2 and WS2 on three different substrates: Au(111), Ag(111) and graphene/SiC. The photoexcited quasiparticle bandgaps are observed to vary over the range of 1.9-2.5 eV between our systems. The transient conduction band signals decay on a sub-50 fs timescale on the metals, signifying an efficient removal of photoinduced carriers into the bulk metallic states. On graphene, we instead observe a fast timescale on the order of 170 fs, followed by a slow dynamics for the conduction band decay in MoS2. These timescales are explained by Auger recombination involving MoS2 and in-gap defect states. In bilayer TMDCs on metals we observe a complex redistribution of excited holes along the valence band that is substantially affected by interactions with the continuum of bulk metallic states

    Nationwide Survival Benefit after Implementation of First-Line Immunotherapy for Patients with Advanced NSCLC—Real World Efficacy

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: The expected change in overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the clinical implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICI) has not been substantially investigated in large real-world cohorts outside randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In this nationwide study, we compared OS before and after the implementation of ICI and found that 3-year OS tripled from 6% to 18%. Patients receiving ICI had a lower OS than demonstrated in RCTs, except for patients with performance status (PS) 0. More than a fifth of the patients progressed early within the first six ICI cycles. Adverse prognostic factors were PS ≥ 1 and metastases to the bone and liver. ABSTRACT: Background The selection of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment remains challenging. This real-world study aimed to compare the overall survival (OS) before and after the implementation of ICIs, to identify OS prognostic factors, and to assess treatment data in first-line (1L) ICI-treated patients without epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation. Methods Data from the Danish NSCLC population initiated with 1L palliative antineoplastic treatment from 1 January 2013 to 1 October 2018, were extracted from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR). Long-term survival and median OS pre- and post-approval of 1L ICI were compared. From electronic health records, additional clinical and treatment data were obtained for ICI-treated patients from 1 March 2017 to 1 October 2018. Results The OS was significantly improved in the DLCR post-approval cohort (n = 2055) compared to the pre-approval cohort (n = 1658). The 3-year OS rates were 18% (95% CI 15.6–20.0) and 6% (95% CI 5.1–7.4), respectively. On multivariable Cox regression, bone (HR = 1.63) and liver metastases (HR = 1.47), performance status (PS) 1 (HR = 1.86), and PS ≥ 2 (HR = 2.19) were significantly associated with poor OS in ICI-treated patients. Conclusion OS significantly improved in patients with advanced NSCLC after ICI implementation in Denmark. In ICI-treated patients, PS ≥ 1, and bone and liver metastases were associated with a worse prognosis

    Nationwide Survival Benefit after Implementation of First-Line Immunotherapy for Patients with Advanced NSCLC—Real World Efficacy

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    Background The selection of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment remains challenging. This real-world study aimed to compare the overall survival (OS) before and after the implementation of ICIs, to identify OS prognostic factors, and to assess treatment data in first-line (1L) ICI-treated patients without epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation. Methods Data from the Danish NSCLC population initiated with 1L palliative antineoplastic treatment from 1 January 2013 to 1 October 2018, were extracted from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR). Long-term survival and median OS pre- and post-approval of 1L ICI were compared. From electronic health records, additional clinical and treatment data were obtained for ICI-treated patients from 1 March 2017 to 1 October 2018. Results The OS was significantly improved in the DLCR post-approval cohort (n = 2055) compared to the pre-approval cohort (n = 1658). The 3-year OS rates were 18% (95% CI 15.6–20.0) and 6% (95% CI 5.1–7.4), respectively. On multivariable Cox regression, bone (HR = 1.63) and liver metastases (HR = 1.47), performance status (PS) 1 (HR = 1.86), and PS ≥ 2 (HR = 2.19) were significantly associated with poor OS in ICI-treated patients. Conclusion OS significantly improved in patients with advanced NSCLC after ICI implementation in Denmark. In ICI-treated patients, PS ≥ 1, and bone and liver metastases were associated with a worse prognosis

    The Stata Journal

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    Estimating adjusted associations between random effects from multilevel models : the reffadjust package. Stata Journal, Volume 14 (Number 1). pp. 119-140. Permanent WRAP url: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/60030 Copyright and reuse: The Warwick Research Archive Portal (WRAP) makes this work of researchers of the University of Warwick available open access under the following conditions. Copyright © and all moral rights to the version of the paper presented here belong to the individual author(s) and/or other copyright owners. To the extent reasonable and practicable the material made available in WRAP has been checked for eligibility before being made available. Copies of full items can be used for personal research or study, educational, or not-forprofit purposes without prior permission or charge. Provided that the authors, title and full bibliographic details are credited, a hyperlink and/or URL is given for the original metadata page and the content is not changed in any way. Publisher's statement: http://www.stata-journal.com. A note on versions: The version presented in WRAP is the published version or, version of record, and may be cited as it appears here. The Stata Journal publishes reviewed papers together with shorter notes or comments, regular columns, book reviews, and other material of interest to Stata users. Examples of the types of papers include 1) expository papers that link the use of Stata commands or programs to associated principles, such as those that will serve as tutorials for users first encountering a new field of statistics or a major new technique; 2) papers that go "beyond the Stata manual" in explaining key features or uses of Stata that are of interest to intermediate or advanced users of Stata; 3) papers that discuss new commands or Stata programs of interest either to a wide spectrum of users (e.g., in data management or graphics) or to some large segment of Stata users (e.g., in survey statistics, survival analysis, panel analysis, or limited dependent variable modeling); 4) papers analyzing the statistical properties of new or existing estimators and tests in Stata; 5) papers that could be of interest or usefulness to researchers, especially in fields that are of practical importance but are not often included in texts or other journals, such as the use of Stata in managing datasets, especially large datasets, with advice from hard-won experience; and 6) papers of interest to those who teach, including Stata with topics such as extended examples of techniques and interpretation of results, simulations of statistical concepts, and overviews of subject areas. Copyright c 2014 by StataCorp LP Copyright Statement: The Stata Journal and the contents of the supporting files (programs, datasets, and help files) are copyright c by StataCorp LP. The contents of the supporting files (programs, datasets, and help files) may be copied or reproduced by any means whatsoever, in whole or in part, as long as any copy or reproduction includes attribution to both (1) the author and (2) the Stata Journal. The articles appearing in the Stata Journal may be copied or reproduced as printed copies, in whole or in part, as long as any copy or reproduction includes attribution to both (1) the author and (2) the Stata Journal. Written permission must be obtained from StataCorp if you wish to make electronic copies of the insertions. This precludes placing electronic copies of the Stata Journal, in whole or in part, on publicly accessible websites, fileservers, or other locations where the copy may be accessed by anyone other than the subscriber. Users of any of the software, ideas, data, or other materials published in the Stata Journal or the supporting files understand that such use is made without warranty of any kind, by either the Stata Journal, the author, or StataCorp. In particular, there is no warranty of fitness of purpose or merchantability, nor for special, incidental, or consequential damages such as loss of profits. Abstract. We describe a method to estimate associations between random effects from multilevel models. We provide two new postestimation commands, reffadjustsim and reffadjust4nlcom, which are distributed as the reffadjust package. These commands produce the estimates and their associated confidence intervals. The commands are used after official Stata multilevel model estimation commands mixed, meqrlogit, and meqrpoisson (formerly named xtmixed, xtmelogit, and xtmepoisson, respectively, before Stata 13) and with models fit in the MLwiN statistical software package via the runmlwin command. We demonstrate our commands with several simulated datasets and for a bivariate outcome model investigating the relationship between weight and mean arterial pressure in pregnant women using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Our method and commands help to improve the interpretability of estimated random-effects variance components from multilevel models

    The Immunomodulatory Drug Glatiramer Acetate is Also an Effective Antimicrobial Agent that Kills Gram-negative Bacteria

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    Classic drug development strategies have failed to meet the urgent clinical needs in treating infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Repurposing drugs can lead to timely availability of new antibiotics, accelerated by existing safety profiles. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used and safe formulation for treatment of multiple sclerosis. It contains a large diversity of essentially isomeric polypeptides with the cationic and amphiphilic character of many antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Here, we report that GA is antibacterial, targeting Gram-negative organisms with higher activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the naturally-occurring AMP LL-37 in human plasma. As judged from flow cytometric assays, bacterial killing by GA occurred within minutes. Laboratory strains of Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa were killed by a process of condensing intracellular contents. Efficient killing by GA was also demonstrated in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and approximately 50% of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from chronic airway infection in CF patients. By contrast, the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells appeared to be protected from GA by an increased formation of nm-scale particulates. Our data identify GA as an attractive drug repurposing candidate to treat infections with Gram-negative bacteria

    Quetiapine extended release versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis: the multicentre, double-blind, randomised tolerability and efficacy of antipsychotics (TEA) trial

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    Background Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable\ In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other. Methods In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial in seven Danish university clinics, we recruited children and adolescents aged 12-17 years with a diagnosis of ICD-10 schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, delusional disorder, or affective-spectrum psychotic disorder, and psychotic symptoms scoring at least 4 on at least one of the following Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items:P1 (delusions), P2 (conceptual disorganisation), P3 (hallucinations), P5 (grandiosity), P6 (suspiciousness/persecution), and G9 (unusual thought content), and a total PANSS score greater than 60. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to 12 weeks of treatment with target doses of 600 mg/day of quetiapineER (starting from 50 mg/day) or 20 mg/day of aripiprazole (starting from 2.5 mg/day). The assigned drug was titrated over five levels, with 2 days at each dose, and the final dose achieved on day 9. Randomisation was done using a computer-generated concealed sequence with a block size of 8, and stratified by baseline PANSS positive score (<= 20 points or >20 points) and age (12-14 years or 15-17 years). Study drugs were administered in identical capsules, and interventions, assessments, and data analysis were done masked. The primary outcome was PANSS positive score. Key adverse outcomes were bodyweight, homoeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), akathisia, and sedation. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01119014. Findings Between June 10, 2010, and Jan 29, 2014, 231 participants were assessed for elegibility, of whom 113 were randomly assigned to quetiapine-ER (n=55) or aripiprazole (n=58). PANSS positive score did not differ between groups after 12 weeks (adjusted mean change -5.05 [5.46] for quetiapine-ER, -6.21 [5.42] for aripiprazole; p=0.98), but decreased over time in both groups (p<0.0001). Weight gain was more rapid with quetiapine-ER (p=0.0008), with an adjusted mean weight group difference at week 12 of 3.33 kg (SD 7.23; effect size 0.64; p<0.0001). The HOMA-IR group difference at week 12 favoured aripiprazole (adjusted mean log-transformed group difference 0.259 [SD 0.906]; effect size 0.35; p=0.0060). Akathisia was more common with aripiprazole at week 2 (observed in 34 [60%] of 57 patients; estimated 63.5%) than with quetiapine-ER (15 [30%] of 50; estimated 31.3%; p=0.0021), but not at other timepoints. Sedation proportions did not change significantly over time with either intervention (observed at weeks 2, 4, and 12, respectively, for quetiapine-ER in 43 [83%] of 52, 40 [83%] of 48, and 34 [72%] of 47 patients and for aripiprazole in 49 [89%] of 55, 52 [96%] of 54, and 44 [92%] of 48 patients), and the overall estimated probability combining all timepoints was significantly higher for aripiprazole (97.1%) than for quetiapine-ER (89.2%; p=0.012). In addition to sedation and akathisia, the most common adverse events were tremor (42 [79%] patients in the quetiapine-ER group vs 52 [91%] patients in the aripiprazole group), increased duration of sleep (47 [92%] vs 39 [71%]), orthostatic dizziness (42 [78%] vs 46 [81%]), depression (43 [80%] vs 44 [77%]), tension/inner unrest (37 [69%] vs 50 [88%]), failing memory (41 [76%] vs 44 [77%]), and weight gain (46 [87%] vs 38 [68%]). Interpretation This first head-to-head comparison of quetiapine-ER versus aripiprazole in early-onset psychosis showed no significant group differences in severity of psychopathology after 12 weeks of treatment. Quetiapine-ER was associated with more metabolic adverse events and aripiprazole with more initial akathisia and, unexpectedly, more sedation. The limited antipsychotic efficacy and high level of adverse events were noticeable. This trial provides novel information for the treatment of early-onset psychosis and highlights the importance of adverse event profiles when choosing among antipsychotics for children and adolescents who often require chronic treatment.National Research Council for Health and Disease Foundation for Health Promotion; AP Moller Foundation; Rosalie Petersens Foundation; Stevn and Rindom Foundation; Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Science; Capital Region Psychiatric Research Foundation; Tryg Foundation; Region of Southern Denmark Research Foundation; Danish Psychiatric Research Educational Fund; Psychiatry Foundation; Psychiatric Research Foundation Region Zealand; Capital Region Strategic Research Foundation; Knud og Dagny Andresens Foundation; Psychiatric Research Foundation; Capital Region Research Foundation; Dr Sofus Carl Emil Friis and Hustru Olga Friis Scholarship; Tomrerhandler Johannes Fogs Foundation; Brdr Hartmanns Foundation DKK; Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation; Jacob Madsen and wife Olga Madsens Foundation; CC Klestrup and wife Scholarship; Lundbeck Foundation Scholarship; Tomrermester Jorgen Holm and wife Elisas Scholarship; Foundation of 17-12-1981SCI(E)SSCIARTICLE8605-618
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