107 research outputs found

    Microeconomics : case studies and applications

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    xiv, 337 pages : charts ; 25 c


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    This dissertation studies the recent rise of extreme right-wing parties in the European context and explores their origins of support and consequences of their presence. This project follows the three-paper method, studying the movement from three distinct perspectives: immigration, globalization, and party influence. Using a variety of data, I employ hierarchical modeling to test hypotheses concerning these three areas in which extreme parties have an impact. My hypotheses focus on the relationship changes in the local population and economic conditions have on the support these parties receive, and how these parties modify the behavior of other right-wing parties. My results indicate extreme right-wing party support is influenced by the size of immigrant populations and the level of globalization in a region. I also find extreme right-wing parties are capable of changing the preferences of center-right parties relative to their strength. These results are important to our understanding of extreme right-wing parties, as they demonstrate how they are able to achieve electoral success and their potential to alter the status quo within party systems

    Effect of Amoxicillin dose and treatment duration on the need for antibiotic re-treatment in children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: The CAP-IT randomized clinical trial

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    Importance: The optimal dose and duration of oral amoxicillin for children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are unclear. Objective: To determine whether lower-dose amoxicillin is noninferior to higher dose and whether 3-day treatment is noninferior to 7 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial noninferiority trial enrolling 824 children, aged 6 months and older, with clinically diagnosed CAP, treated with amoxicillin on discharge from emergency departments and inpatient wards of 28 hospitals in the UK and 1 in Ireland between February 2017 and April 2019, with last trial visit on May 21, 2019. Interventions: Children were randomized 1:1 to receive oral amoxicillin at a lower dose (35-50 mg/kg/d; n = 410) or higher dose (70-90 mg/kg/d; n = 404), for a shorter duration (3 days; n = 413) or a longer duration (7 days; n = 401). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was clinically indicated antibiotic re-treatment for respiratory infection within 28 days after randomization. The noninferiority margin was 8%. Secondary outcomes included severity/duration of 9 parent-reported CAP symptoms, 3 antibiotic-related adverse events, and phenotypic resistance in colonizing Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Results: Of 824 participants randomized into 1 of the 4 groups, 814 received at least 1 dose of trial medication (median [IQR] age, 2.5 years [1.6-2.7]; 421 [52%] males and 393 [48%] females), and the primary outcome was available for 789 (97%). For lower vs higher dose, the primary outcome occurred in 12.6% with lower dose vs 12.4% with higher dose (difference, 0.2% [1-sided 95% CI -∞ to 4.0%]), and in 12.5% with 3-day treatment vs 12.5% with 7-day treatment (difference, 0.1% [1-sided 95% CI -∞ to 3.9]). Both groups demonstrated noninferiority with no significant interaction between dose and duration (P =.63). Of the 14 prespecified secondary end points, the only significant differences were 3-day vs 7-day treatment for cough duration (median 12 days vs 10 days; hazard ratio [HR], 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4]; P =.04) and sleep disturbed by cough (median, 4 days vs 4 days; HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4]; P =.03). Among the subgroup of children with severe CAP, the primary end point occurred in 17.3% of lower-dose recipients vs 13.5% of higher-dose recipients (difference, 3.8% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to10%]; P value for interaction =.18) and in 16.0% with 3-day treatment vs 14.8% with 7-day treatment (difference, 1.2% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to 7.4%]; P value for interaction =.73). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with CAP discharged from an emergency department or hospital ward (within 48 hours), lower-dose outpatient oral amoxicillin was noninferior to higher dose, and 3-day duration was noninferior to 7 days, with regard to need for antibiotic re-treatment. However, disease severity, treatment setting, prior antibiotics received, and acceptability of the noninferiority margin require consideration when interpreting the findings. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN76888927

    Try, test and learn evaluation - interim report

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    This Interim Report of the Try, Test and Learn (TTL) Fund evaluation commissioned by the Australian Department of Social Services focusses on 14 tranche 1 TTL projects. A second tranche of TTL projects started one year later. The evaluation methodology follows an embedded mixed methods research design, integrating qualitative methods into a quasi-experimental design. This Interim Report assesses the establishment of the TTL Fund and the progress of TTL project implementation using 1 January 2018 – 30 June 2019 quantitative administrative data, 14 group interviews with tranche 1 project service providers and their available progress reports. It presents initial descriptive outcomes and comments on the adequacy of the administrative data for answering the evaluation questions

    Preferred learning modalities and practice for critical skills: A global survey of paediatric emergency medicine clinicians

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    © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Objective To describe senior paediatric emergency clinician perspectives on the optimal frequency of and preferred modalities for practising critical paediatric procedures. Methods Multicentre multicountry cross-sectional survey of senior paediatric emergency clinicians working in 96 EDs affiliated with the Pediatric Emergency Research Network. Results 1332/2446 (54%) clinicians provided information on suggested frequency of practice and preferred learning modalities for 18 critical procedures. Yearly practice was recommended for six procedures (bag valve mask ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), endotracheal intubation, laryngeal mask airway insertion, defibrillation/direct current (DC) cardioversion and intraosseous needle insertion) by at least 80% of respondents. 16 procedures were recommended for yearly practice by at least 50% of respondents. Two procedures (venous cutdown and ED thoracotomy) had yearly practice recommended b

    Election 2016: What will a re-elected Coalition government mean for key policy areas?

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    Labor leader Bill Shorten on Sunday conceded the 2016 election to Malcolm Turnbull, though it remains uncertain whether the Coalition will form a majority or minority government. So what’s ahead now for health, infrastructure, the economy, welfare, education and more? The Conversation’s experts respond to what the Coalition’s agenda will mean for key policy areas