74 research outputs found

    FASEB J

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    The striatum is a brain structure involved in the control of voluntary movement. Striatum contains high amounts of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, as well as retinoid receptors, RARβ and RXRγ. Previous studies revealed that disruption of retinoid signaling initiated during development is deleterious for striatal physiology and related motor functions. However, the alteration of retinoid signaling, and the importance of vitamin A supply during adulthood on striatal physiology and function has never been established. In the present study, we investigated the impact of vitamin A supply on striatal function. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three specific diets, either sub-deficient, sufficient, or enriched in vitamin A (0.4, 5, and 20 international units [IU] of retinol per g of diet, respectively) for 6 months. We first validated that vitamin A sub-deficient diet in adult rats constitutes a physiological model of retinoid signaling reduction in the striatum. We then revealed subtle alterations of fine motor skills in sub-deficient rats using a new behavioral apparatus specifically designed to test forepaw reach-and-grasp skills relying on striatal function. Finally, we showed using qPCR analysis and immunofluorescence that the striatal dopaminergic system per se was not affected by vitamin A sub-deficiency at adult age. Rather, cholinergic synthesis in the striatum and μ-opioid receptor expression in striosomes sub-territories were the most affected by vitamin A sub-deficiency starting at adulthood. Taken together these results revealed that retinoid signaling alteration at adulthood is associated with motor learning deficits together with discrete neurobiological alterations in the striatum

    Impact of dietary vitamin A on striatal function in adult rats

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    The striatum is a brain structure involved in the control of voluntary movement. Striatum contains high amounts of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, as well as retinoid receptors, RARβ and RXRγ. Previous studies revealed that disruption of retinoid signaling initiated during development is deleterious for striatal physiology and related motor functions. However, the alteration of retinoid signaling, and the importance of vitamin A supply during adulthood on striatal physiology and function has never been established. In the present study, we investigated the impact of vitamin A supply on striatal function. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were fed with three specific diets, either sub-deficient, sufficient, or enriched in vitamin A (0.4, 5 and 20 international units (IU) of retinol per g of diet, respectively) for 6 months. We first validated that vitamin A sub-deficient diet in adult rats constitutes a physiological model of retinoid signaling reduction in the striatum. We then revealed subtle alterations of fine motor skills in sub-deficient rats using a new behavioral apparatus specifically designed to test forepaw reach-and-grasp skills relying on striatal function. Finally, we showed using qPCR analysis and immunofluorescence that the striatal dopaminergic system per se was not affected by vitamin A sub-deficiency at adult age. Rather, cholinergic synthesis in the striatum and μ-opioid receptor expression in striosomes sub-territories were the most affected by vitamin A sub-deficiency starting at adulthood. Taken together these results revealed that retinoid signaling alteration at adulthood is associated with Amotor learning deficits together with discrete neurobiological alterations in the striatum

    A novel functional mast cell assay for the detection of allergies.

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    BACKGROUND Clinical management of allergic diseases has been hampered by the lack of safe and convenient tests to reliably identify culprit allergens and to closely follow changes in disease activity over time. Since allergy diagnosis is a complex and laborious multistep procedure, there is an urgent need for simpler but still functionally accurate ex vivo assays allowing objective diagnosis, substantiating treatment choices and quantifying therapeutic responses. OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to develop a novel functional cell-based assay that relies on passive sensitization of allergic effector cells with patient serum circumventing current limitations in allergy diagnosis. METHODS We genetically engineered a conditional Hoxb8-immortalized progenitor line from the bone-marrow of mice that are transgenic for the human high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIα). These cells can be reproducibly differentiated into mature Hoxb8 mast cells (Hoxb8 MCs) within in 5 days of culture in virtually unlimited numbers. RESULTS We demonstrate that the established Hoxb8 MC assay can be used to accurately measure total IgE levels, identify culprit allergens, longitudinally monitor allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and potentially to determine the timepoint of tolerance induction upon AIT in allergic patients. To facilitate the analysis of large testing volumes, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-throughput screening application based on fluorescent cell barcoding using the engineered Hoxb8 MCs. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that this novel mast cell assay could represent a valuable tool to support clinicians in the identification of IgE-mediated allergies and in the quantification of treatment efficacy as well as duration of therapeutic response

    p53 activation during ribosome biogenesis regulates normal erythroid differentiation

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    International audienceThe role of ribosome biogenesis in erythroid development is supported by the recognition of erythroid defects in ribosomopathies in both Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome. Whether ribosome biogenesis exerts a regulatory function on normal erythroid development is still unknown. In the present study, a detailed characterization of ribosome biogenesis dynamics during human and murine erythropoiesis shows that ribosome biogenesis is abruptly interrupted by the drop of rDNA transcription and the collapse of ribosomal protein neo-synthesis. Its premature arrest by RNA polI inhibitor, CX-5461 targets the proliferation of immature erythroblasts. We also show that p53 is activated spontaneously or in response to CX-5461 concomitantly to ribosome biogenesis arrest, and drives a transcriptional program in which genes involved in cell cycle arrest, negative regulation of apoptosis and DNA damage response were upregulated. RNA polI transcriptional stress results in nucleolar disruption and activation of ATR-CHK1-p53 pathway. Our results imply that the timing of ribosome biogenesis extinction and p53 activation are crucial for erythroid development. In ribosomopathies in which ribosome availability is altered by unbalanced production of ribosomal proteins, the threshold of ribosome biogenesis down-regulation could be prematurely reached and together with pathological p53 activation prevents a normal expansion of erythroid progenitors

    Masitinib as an add-on therapy to riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial

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    Objective: To assess masitinib in the treatment of ALS. Methods: Double-blind study, randomly assigning 394 patients (1:1:1) to receive riluzole (100 mg/d) plus placebo or masitinib at 4.5 or 3.0 mg/kg/d. Following a blinded transition from phase 2 to phase 2/3, a prospectively defined two-tiered design was implemented based on ALSFRS-R progression rate from disease-onset to baseline (ΔFS). This approach selects a more homogeneous primary efficacy population (“Normal Progressors”, ΔFS < 1.1 points/month) while concurrently permitting secondary assessment of the broader population. Primary endpoint was decline in ALSFRS-R at week-48 (ΔALSFRS-R), with the high-dose “Normal Progressor” cohort being the prospectively declared primary efficacy population. Missing data were imputed via last observation carried forward (LOCF) methodology with sensitivity analyses performed to test robustness. Results: For the primary efficacy population, masitinib (n = 99) showed significant benefit over placebo (n = 102) with a ΔALSFRS-R between-group difference (ΔLSM) of 3.4 (95% CI 0.65–6.13; p = 0.016), corresponding to a 27% slowing in rate of functional decline (LOCF methodology). Sensitivity analyses were all convergent, including the conservative multiple imputation technique of FCS-REGPMM with a ΔLSM of 3.4 (95% CI 0.53–6.33; p = 0.020). Secondary endpoints (ALSAQ-40, FVC, and time-to-event analysis) were also significant. Conversely, no significant treatment-effect according to ΔALSFRS-R was seen for the broader “Normal and Fast Progressor” masitinib 4.5 mg/kg/d cohort, or either of the low-dose (masitinib 3.0 mg/kg/d) cohorts. Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) (regardless of causality or post-onset ΔFS) were 88% with masitinib 4.5 mg/kg/d, 85% with 3.0 mg/kg/d, and 79% with placebo. Likewise, rates of serious AE were 31, 23, and 18%, respectively. No distinct event contributed to the higher rate observed for masitinib and no deaths were related to masitinib. Conclusions: Results show that masitinib at 4.5 mg/kg/d can benefit patients with ALS. A confirmatory phase 3 study will be initiated to substantiate these data

    Masitinib for treatment of severely symptomatic indolent systemic mastocytosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study

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    International audienceBACKGROUND:Indolent systemic mastocytosis, including the subvariant of smouldering systemic mastocytosis, is a lifelong condition associated with reduced quality of life. Masitinib inhibits KIT and LYN kinases that are involved in indolent systemic mastocytosis pathogenesis. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of masitinib versus placebo in severely symptomatic patients who were unresponsive to optimal symptomatic treatments.METHODS:In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we enrolled adults (aged 18-75 years) with indolent or smouldering systemic mastocytosis, according to WHO classification or documented mastocytosis based on histological criteria, at 50 centres in 15 countries. We excluded patients with cutaneous or non-severe systemic mastocytosis after a protocol amendment. Patients were centrally randomised (1:1) to receive either oral masitinib (6 mg/kg per day over 24 weeks with possible extension) or matched placebo with minimisation according to severe symptoms. The primary endpoint was cumulative response (≥75% improvement from baseline within weeks 8-24) in at least one severe baseline symptom from the following: pruritus score of 9 or more, eight or more flushes per week, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression of 19 or more, or Fatigue Impact Scale of 75 or more. We assessed treatment effect using repeated measures methodology for rare diseases via the generalised estimating equation model in a modified intention-to-treat population, including all participants assigned to treatment minus those who withdrew due to a non-treatment-related cause. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00814073.FINDINGS:Between Feb 19, 2009, and July 15, 2015, 135 patients were randomly assigned to masitinib (n=71) or placebo (n=64). By 24 weeks, masitinib was associated with a cumulative response of 18·7% in the primary endpoint (122·6 responses of 656·5 possible responses [weighted generalised estimating equation]) compared with 7·4% for placebo (48·9 of 656·5; difference 11·3%; odds ratio 3·6; 95% CI 1·2-10·8; p=0·0076). Frequent severe adverse events (>4% difference from placebo) were diarrhoea (eight [11%] of 70 in the masitinib group vs one [2%] of 63 in the placebo group), rash (four [6%] vs none), and asthenia (four [6%] vs one [2%]). The most frequent serious adverse events were diarrhoea (three patients [4%] vs one [2%]) and urticaria (two [3%] vs none), and no life-threatening toxicities occurred. One patient in the placebo group died (unrelated to study treatment).INTERPRETATION:These study findings indicate that masitinib is an effective and well tolerated agent for the treatment of severely symptomatic indolent or smouldering systemic mastocytosis

    Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

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    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation

    Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

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    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1-positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance

    A Promoter in the Coding Region of the Calcium Channel Gene <i>CACNA1C</i> Generates the Transcription Factor CCAT

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    <div><p>The C-terminus of the voltage-gated calcium channel Ca<sub>v</sub>1.2 encodes a transcription factor, the calcium channel associated transcriptional regulator (CCAT), that regulates neurite extension and inhibits Ca<sub>v</sub>1.2 expression. The mechanisms by which CCAT is generated in neurons and myocytes are poorly understood. Here we show that CCAT is produced by activation of a cryptic promoter in exon 46 of <i>CACNA1C,</i> the gene that encodes Ca<sub>V</sub>1.2. Expression of CCAT is independent of Ca<sub>v</sub>1.2 expression in neuroblastoma cells, in mice, and in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), providing strong evidence that CCAT is not generated by cleavage of Ca<sub>V</sub>1.2. Analysis of the transcriptional start sites in <i>CACNA1C</i> and immune-blotting for channel proteins indicate that multiple proteins are generated from the 3′ end of the <i>CACNA1C</i> gene. This study provides new insights into the regulation of <i>CACNA1C,</i> and provides an example of how exonic promoters contribute to the complexity of mammalian genomes.</p></div

    Masitinib as an adjunct therapy for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial

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    International audienceIntroductionNeuroinflammation is thought to be important in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Mast cells are a key component of the inflammatory network and participate in the regulation of the blood-brain barrier's permeability. Masitinib, a selective oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibits the survival, migration and activity of mast cells. As the brain is rich in mast cells, the therapeutic potential of masitinib as an adjunct therapy to standard care was investigated.MethodsA randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study was performed in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, receiving masitinib as an adjunct to cholinesterase inhibitor and/or memantine. Patients were randomly assigned to receive masitinib (n = 26) (starting dose of 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) or placebo (n = 8), administered twice daily for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) to assess cognitive function and the related patient response rate.ResultsThe rate of clinically relevant cognitive decline according to the ADAS-Cog response (increase >4 points) after 12 and 24 weeks was significantly lower with masitinib adjunctive treatment compared with placebo (6% vs. 50% for both time points; P = 0.040 and P = 0.046, respectively). Moreover, whilst the placebo treatment arm showed worsening mean ADAS-Cog, Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, the masitinib treatment arm reported improvements, with statistical significance between treatment arms at week 12 and/or week 24 (respectively, P = 0.016 and 0.030; P = 0.035 and 0.128; and P = 0.047 and 0.031). The mean treatment effect according to change in ADAS-Cog score relative to baseline at weeks 12 and 24 was 6.8 and 7.6, respectively. Adverse events occurred more frequently with masitinib treatment (65% vs. 38% of patients); however, the majority of events were of mild or moderate intensity and transitory. Severe adverse events occurred at a similar frequency in the masitinib and placebo arms (15% vs. 13% of patients, respectively). Masitinib-associated events included gastrointestinal disorders, oedema, and rash.ConclusionsMasitinib administered as add-on therapy to standard care during 24 weeks was associated with slower cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, with an acceptable tolerance profile. Masitinib may therefore represent an innovative avenue of treatment in Alzheimer's disease. This trial provides evidence that may support a larger placebo-controlled investigation.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT0097611
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