92 research outputs found

    Huntington disease oligodendrocyte maturation deficits revealed by single-nucleus RNAseq are rescued by thiamine-biotin supplementation

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    The complexity of affected brain regions and cell types is a challenge for Huntington's disease (HD) treatment. Here we use single nucleus RNA sequencing to investigate molecular pathology in the cortex and striatum from R6/2 mice and human HD post-mortem tissue. We identify cell type-specific and -agnostic signatures suggesting oligodendrocytes (OLs) and oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are arrested in intermediate maturation states. OL-lineage regulators OLIG1 and OLIG2 are negatively correlated with CAG length in human OPCs, and ATACseq analysis of HD mouse NeuN-negative cells shows decreased accessibility regulated by OL maturation genes. The data implicates glucose and lipid metabolism in abnormal cell maturation and identify PRKCE and Thiamine Pyrophosphokinase 1 (TPK1) as central genes. Thiamine/biotin treatment of R6/1 HD mice to compensate for TPK1 dysregulation restores OL maturation and rescues neuronal pathology. Our insights into HD OL pathology spans multiple brain regions and link OL maturation deficits to abnormal thiamine metabolism

    New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

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    Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‚Äėproxy‚Äô AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 risk loci, of which 42 were new at the time of analysis. Pathway enrichment analyses confirmed the involvement of amyloid/tau pathways and highlighted microglia implication. Gene prioritization in the new loci identified 31 genes that were suggestive of new genetically associated processes, including the tumor necrosis factor alpha pathway through the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. We also built a new genetic risk score associated with the risk of future AD/dementia or progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD/dementia. The improvement in prediction led to a 1.6- to 1.9-fold increase in AD risk from the lowest to the highest decile, in addition to effects of age and the APOE őĶ4 allele

    New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

    No full text
    Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‚Äėproxy‚Äô AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 risk loci, of which 42 were new at the time of analysis. Pathway enrichment analyses confirmed the involvement of amyloid/tau pathways and highlighted microglia implication. Gene prioritization in the new loci identified 31 genes that were suggestive of new genetically associated processes, including the tumor necrosis factor alpha pathway through the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. We also built a new genetic risk score associated with the risk of future AD/dementia or progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD/dementia. The improvement in prediction led to a 1.6- to 1.9-fold increase in AD risk from the lowest to the highest decile, in addition to effects of age and the APOE őĶ4 allele

    Genome-wide association study and functional validation implicates JADE1 in tauopathy

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    AbstractPrimary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy with features distinct from but also overlapping with Alzheimer disease (AD). While both exhibit Alzheimer-type temporal lobe neurofibrillary degeneration alongside amnestic cognitive impairment, PART develops independently of amyloid-ő≤ (Aő≤) deposition in plaques. The pathogenesis of PART is unknown, but evidence suggests it is associated with genes that promote tau pathology as well as others that protect from Aő≤ toxicity. Here, we performed a genetic association study in an autopsy cohort of individuals with PART (n=647) using Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage as a quantitative trait adjusting for sex, age, genotyping platform, and principal components. We found significant associations with some candidate loci associated with AD and progressive supranuclear palsy, a primary tauopathy (SLC24A4, MS4A6A, HS3ST1, MAPT and EIF2AK3). Genome-wide association analysis revealed a novel significant association with a single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (rs56405341) in a locus containing three genes, including JADE1 which was significantly upregulated in tangle-bearing neurons by single-soma RNA-seq. Immunohistochemical studies using antisera targeting JADE1 protein revealed localization within tau aggregates in autopsy brain from tauopathies containing isoforms with four microtubule-binding domain repeats (4R) and mixed 3R/4R, but not with 3R exclusively. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a direct and specific binding of JADE1 protein to tau containing four (4R) and no N-terminal inserts (0N4R) in post-mortem human PART brain tissue. Finally, knockdown of the Drosophila JADE1 homolog rhinoceros (rno) enhanced tau-induced toxicity and apoptosis in vivo in a humanized 0N4R mutant tau knock-in model as quantified by rough eye phenotype and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) in the fly brain. Together, these findings indicate that PART has a genetic architecture that partially overlaps with AD and other tauopathies and suggests a novel role for JADE1 as a mediator of neurofibrillary degeneration

    Single cell RNA sequencing of human microglia uncovers a subset associated with Alzheimer’s disease

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    © 2020, The Author(s). The extent of microglial heterogeneity in humans remains a central yet poorly explored question in light of the development of therapies targeting this cell type. Here, we investigate the population structure of live microglia purified from human cerebral cortex samples obtained at autopsy and during neurosurgical procedures. Using single cell RNA sequencing, we find that some subsets are enriched for disease-related genes and RNA signatures. We confirm the presence of four of these microglial subpopulations histologically and illustrate the utility of our data by characterizing further microglial cluster 7, enriched for genes depleted in the cortex of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Histologically, these cluster 7 microglia are reduced in frequency in AD tissue, and we validate this observation in an independent set of single nucleus data. Thus, our live human microglia identify a range of subtypes, and we prioritize one of these as being altered in AD

    Early Selective Vulnerability of the CA2 Hippocampal Subfield in Primary Age-Related Tauopathy.

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    Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a neurodegenerative entity defined as Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary degeneration primarily affecting the medial temporal lobe with minimal to absent amyloid-ő≤ (Aő≤) plaque deposition. The extent to which PART can be differentiated pathoanatomically from Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. Here, we examined the regional distribution of tau pathology in a large cohort of postmortem brains (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ914). We found an early vulnerability of the CA2 subregion of the hippocampus to neurofibrillary degeneration in PART, and semiquantitative assessment of neurofibrillary degeneration in CA2 was significantly greater than in CA1 in PART. In contrast, subjects harboring intermediate-to-high AD neuropathologic change (ADNC) displayed relative sparing of CA2 until later stages of their disease course. In addition, the CA2/CA1 ratio of neurofibrillary degeneration in PART was significantly higher than in subjects with intermediate-to-high ADNC burden. Furthermore, the distribution of tau pathology in PART diverges from the Braak NFT staging system and Braak stage does not correlate with cognitive function in PART as it does in individuals with intermediate-to-high ADNC. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the contribution of PART to cognitive impairment and how neurofibrillary degeneration interacts with Aő≤ pathology in AD and PART
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