172 research outputs found

    A longitudinal resource for population neuroscience of school-age children and adolescents in China

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    During the past decade, cognitive neuroscience has been calling for population diversity to address the challenge of validity and generalizability, ushering in a new era of population neuroscience. The developing Chinese Color Nest Project (devCCNP, 2013-2022), the first ten-year stage of the lifespan CCNP (2013-2032), is a two-stages project focusing on brain-mind development. The project aims to create and share a large-scale, longitudinal and multimodal dataset of typically developing children and adolescents (ages 6.0-17.9 at enrolment) in the Chinese population. The devCCNP houses not only phenotypes measured by demographic, biophysical, psychological and behavioural, cognitive, affective, and ocular-tracking assessments but also neurotypes measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain morphometry, resting-state function, naturalistic viewing function and diffusion structure. This Data Descriptor introduces the first data release of devCCNP including a total of 864 visits from 479 participants. Herein, we provided details of the experimental design, sampling strategies, and technical validation of the devCCNP resource. We demonstrate and discuss the potential of a multicohort longitudinal design to depict normative brain growth curves from the perspective of developmental population neuroscience. The devCCNP resource is shared as part of the "Chinese Data-sharing Warehouse for In-vivo Imaging Brain" in the Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP) - Lifespan Brain-Mind Development Data Community (https://ccnp.scidb.cn) at the Science Data Bank

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex cell‐derived EVs have an altered protein cargo capable of regulating their microenvironment and have potential as disease biomarkers

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    Abstract Hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a feature of many solid tumours and is a key pathogenic driver in the inherited condition Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). Modulation of the tumour microenvironment by extracellular vesicles (EVs) is known to facilitate the development of various cancers. The role of EVs in modulating the tumour microenvironment and their impact on the development of TSC tumours, however, remains unclear. This study, therefore, focuses on the poorly defined contribution of EVs to tumour growth in TSC. We characterised EVs secreted from TSC2‐deficient and TSC2‐expressing cells and identified a distinct protein cargo in TSC2‐deficient EVs, containing an enrichment of proteins thought to be involved in tumour‐supporting signalling pathways. We show EVs from TSC2‐deficient cells promote cell viability, proliferation and growth factor secretion from recipient fibroblasts within the tumour microenvironment. Rapalogs (mTORC1 inhibitors) are the current therapy for TSC tumours. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown intercellular therapeutic effect of rapamycin in altering EV cargo and reducing capacity to promote cell proliferation in the tumour microenvironment. Furthermore, EV cargo proteins have the potential for clinical applications as TSC biomarkers, and we reveal three EV‐associated proteins that are elevated in plasma from TSC patients compared to healthy donor plasma

    Additions to the distribution of Sudanese scorpions

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    Six species of scorpion (Arachnida: Scorpiones) are documented from eighteen localities in seven different states within the Republic of the Sudan. Combining this new data with historical records in the Sudan Natural History Museum and the published literature enables the first provisional distribution maps for Sudanese scorpions. New state records could be added for three medically significant species: Androctonus amoreuxi (Audouin, 1826) from Khartoum, North Kordofan and North Darfur, Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1829) from Kassala, River Nile, White Nile and North Darfur, and Parabuthus abyssinicus (Pocock, 1901) from Kassala. Among the less venomous species, we offer new state records for Buthacus leptochelys (Ehrenberg, 1829) in White Nile State, for Compsobuthus werneri (Birula, 1908) in North Kordofan, White Nile and Kassala States and for Orthochirus olivaceus (Karsch, 1881) in River Nile, Northern and Kassala States. Further information about the taxonomy, distribution and toxicity of Sudanese scorpions is presented

    A remarkable assemblage of ticks from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber

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    DATA: The data reported in this paper are detailed in the main text.Four fossil ticks (Arachnida: Parasitiformes: Ixodida) are described from mid-Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar. Ixodes antiquorum sp. nov. (Ixodidae) is the first Mesozoic record of Ixodes and the oldest representative of the most species-rich extant tick genus. Its affinities appear to lie with modern Australian forms, consistent with the hypothesis that Burmese amber hosted Gondwanan faunal elements. Even more remarkable is Khimaira fossus gen. et sp. nov. which combines a body resembling that of a soft tick (Argasidae) with a basis capitulum more like that of a hard tick (Ixodidae). We refer it to Khimairidae fam. nov. as a possible transitional form between the two main families of ticks alive today. Another member of the extinct Deinocrotonidae is described as Deinocroton copia sp. nov., while the first described adult female for Cornupalpatum burmanicum is associated with a dinosaur feather barb.https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/parasitologyhj2023Veterinary Tropical Disease

    Observations on regeneration of the pedipalp and legs of scorpions

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    An Opisthacanthus asper (Peters, 1861) (Hormuridae) shows a relatively rare example of pedipalp regeneration in which the lost tibia and tarsus was replaced by a smaller, curved element of uncertain homology to either the fixed or free finger. A comparable abnormal palp described in the literature hints that pedipalps can only regenerate a structure of this form, regardless of the site of amputation. An Olivierus caucasicus (Nordmann, 1840) (Buthidae) is described in which claws (pretarsus) of leg III regenerated directly at the distal end of the tibia, while in leg IV the claws regenerated at the end of a truncated section of the metatarsus. This supports previous observations that scorpions can only regenerate the pretarsus of the leg, again irrespective of where on the limb the original breakage occurred

    A Cambrian fossil from the Chengjiang fauna sharing characteristics with gilled lobopodians, opabiniids and radiodonts

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    Parvibellus atavus gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna of China is a small fossil having a distinct cephalic region bearing a pair of lateral projections and a circular, ventral mouth. The trunk bears eleven pairs of probably flap-like appendages and a short pair of terminal projections. This character combination is unique for the Chengjiang biota. A circular ventral mouth is seen in Radiodonta and in some of the gilled lobopodians which are thought to be among the radiodont’s closest relatives. P. atavus, gilled lobopodians, opabiniids, and radiodonts also share the putative character of flap-like appendages along the trunk. However, the new fossil differs from radiodonts and gilled lobopodians by the absence of enlarged and/or raptorial frontal appendages. It also differs from gilled lobopodians by lacking in ventral lobopod limbs and from radiodonts by lacking in stalked eyes. It provisionally resolves as a sister-group to a clade containing the gilled lobopodians, opabiniids, and radiodonts, and could potentially be part of an early radiation of the nektonic lower stem—Euarthropoda
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