338 research outputs found

    Pathogenicity and Immune Response of Starry Flounder, Platichthys stellatus, Infected with Vibrio anguillarum

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    Vibrio anguillarum is the aetiological agent of vibriosis, a disease affecting many marine fish species. The occurrence of vibriosis in starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, grown in an aquaculture farm has demonstrated the urgent need for information on pathogenic infection and immune response for efficient disease management. This is the first study to report Vibrio anguillarum isolation and infection in starry flounder. We evaluated immune responses, serum biochemical parameters, and cumulative mortality of the fish by experimentally challenging healthy fish. The expression levels of five immune genes (TNF, TNFR, IL-6, MHCII, and CXC) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional levels of the genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor (TNFR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), and a chemokine (CXC) in the head-kidney of V. anguillarum infected fish were significantly upregulated compared with control fish and biochemical indices including the alanine aminotransferase, total serum protein, and glucose levels of infected fish differed significantly from those of control. Additionally, Starry flounder infected with V. anguillarum at 1.67 Ă— 106 and 1.67 Ă— 108CFU/mL showed 53%, and 100% mortality, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the immune and serum biochemical alterations, and mortality induced by bacterial infections, depending on pathogen concentration. This may advance strategies for control of V. anguillarum in cultured starry flounde

    Immune-Related Gene Expression in Two B-Complex Disparate Genetically Inbred Fayoumi Chicken Lines Following Eimeria maxima Infection

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    To investigate the influence of genetic differences in the MHC on susceptibility to avian coccidiosis, M5.1 and M15.2 B-haplotype-disparate Fayoumi chickens were orally infected with live Eimeria maxima oocysts, and BW gain, fecal oocyst production, and expression of 14 immune-related genes were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Weight loss was reduced and fecal parasite numbers were lower in birds of the M5.1 line compared with M15.2 line birds. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes from M5.1 chickens expressed greater levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17A, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor and lower levels of mRNA for IFN-α, IL-10, IL-17D, NK-lysin, and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 compared with the M15.2 line. In the spleen, E. maxima infection was associated with greater expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-15, and IL-8 and lower levels of IL-6, IL-17D, and IL-12 in M5.1 vs. M15.2 birds. These results suggest that genetic determinants within the chicken MHC influence resistance to E. maxima infection by controlling the local and systemic expression of immune-related cytokine and chemokine genes

    Proximity effect at superconducting Sn-Bi2Se3 interface

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    We have investigated the conductance spectra of Sn-Bi2Se3 interface junctions down to 250 mK and in different magnetic fields. A number of conductance anomalies were observed below the superconducting transition temperature of Sn, including a small gap different from that of Sn, and a zero-bias conductance peak growing up at lower temperatures. We discussed the possible origins of the smaller gap and the zero-bias conductance peak. These phenomena support that a proximity-effect-induced chiral superconducting phase is formed at the interface between the superconducting Sn and the strong spin-orbit coupling material Bi2Se3.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figure

    Centrality Dependence of the High p_T Charged Hadron Suppression in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 130 GeV

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    PHENIX has measured the centrality dependence of charged hadron p_T spectra from central Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV. The truncated mean p_T decreases with centrality for p_T > 2 GeV/c, indicating an apparent reduction of the contribution from hard scattering to high p_T hadron production. For central collisions the yield at high p_T is shown to be suppressed compared to binary nucleon-nucleon collision scaling of p+p data. This suppression is monotonically increasing with centrality, but most of the change occurs below 30% centrality, i.e. for collisions with less than about 140 participating nucleons. The observed p_T and centrality dependence is consistent with the particle production predicted by models including hard scattering and subsequent energy loss of the scattered partons in the dense matter created in the collisions.Comment: 7 pages text, LaTeX, 6 figures, 2 tables, 307 authors, resubmitted to Phys. Lett. B. Revised to address referee concerns. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/phenix/WWW/run/phenix/papers.htm

    Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration

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    Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (p_T), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, non-statistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high p_T. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.Comment: 510 authors, 127 pages text, 56 figures, 1 tables, LaTeX. Submitted to Nuclear Physics A as a regular article; v3 has minor changes in response to referee comments. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.htm

    Search for a W' boson decaying to a bottom quark and a top quark in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    Results are presented from a search for a W' boson using a dataset corresponding to 5.0 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity collected during 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The W' boson is modeled as a heavy W boson, but different scenarios for the couplings to fermions are considered, involving both left-handed and right-handed chiral projections of the fermions, as well as an arbitrary mixture of the two. The search is performed in the decay channel W' to t b, leading to a final state signature with a single lepton (e, mu), missing transverse energy, and jets, at least one of which is tagged as a b-jet. A W' boson that couples to fermions with the same coupling constant as the W, but to the right-handed rather than left-handed chiral projections, is excluded for masses below 1.85 TeV at the 95% confidence level. For the first time using LHC data, constraints on the W' gauge coupling for a set of left- and right-handed coupling combinations have been placed. These results represent a significant improvement over previously published limits.Comment: Submitted to Physics Letters B. Replaced with version publishe

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying into two photons in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV