2,193 research outputs found

    Absence of an association of human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection with lung cancer in China: a nested case–control study

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    Abstract Background Studies of human polyomavirus (HPyV) infection and lung cancer are limited and those regarding the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and lung cancer have produced inconsistent results. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study to assess the association between incident lung cancer of various histologies and evidence of prior infection with HPyVs and HPVs. We selected serum from 183 cases and 217 frequency matched controls from the Yunnan Tin Miner’s Cohort study, which was designed to identify biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Using multiplex liquid bead microarray (LBMA) antibody assays, we tested for antibodies to the VP1 structural protein and small T antigen (ST-Ag) of Merkel cell, KI, and WU HPyVs. We also tested for antibodies against HPV L1 structural proteins (high-risk types 16, 18, 31, 33, 52, and 58 and low-risk types 6 and 11) and E6 and E7 oncoproteins (high risk types 16 and 18). Measures of antibody reactivity were log transformed and analyzed using logistic regression. Results We found no association between KIV, WUV, and MCV antibody levels and incident lung cancer (P-corrected for multiple comparisons >0.10 for all trend tests). We also found no association with HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 52, and 58 seropositivity (P-corrected for multiple comparisons >0.05 for all). Conclusions Future studies of infectious etiologies of lung cancer should look beyond HPyVs and HPVs as candidate infectious agents

    Standard treatment regimens for nongonococcal urethritis have similar but declining cure rates: A randomized controlled trial

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    Background. Azithromycin or doxycycline is recommended for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); recent evidence suggests their efficacy has declined. We compared azithromycin and doxycycline in men with NGU, hypothesizing that azithromycin was more effective than doxycycline. Methods. From January 2007 to July 2011, English-speaking males ≥16 years, attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Seattle, Washington, with NGU (visible urethral discharge or ≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field [PMNs/HPF]) were eligible for this double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial. Participants received active azithromycin (1 g) + placebo doxycycline or active doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) + placebo azithromycin. Urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 (UU-2), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using nucleic acid amplification tests. Clinical cure (<5 PMNs/HPF with or without urethral symptoms and absence of discharge) and microbiologic cure (negative tests for CT, MG, and/or UU-2) were determined after 3 weeks. Results. Of 606 men, 304 were randomized to azithromycin and 302 to doxycycline; CT, MG, TV, and UU-2 were detected in 24%, 13%, 2%, and 23%, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analyses, 172 of 216 (80%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 74%–85%) receiving azithromycin and 157 of 206 (76%; 95% CI, 70%–82%) receiving doxycycline experienced clinical cure (P = .40). In pathogen-specific analyses, clinical cure did not differ by arm, nor did microbiologic cure differ for CT (86% vs 90%, P = .56), MG (40% vs 30%, P = .41), or UU-2 (75% vs 70%, P = .50). No unexpected adverse events occurred. Conclusions. Clinical and microbiologic cure rates for NGU were somewhat low and there was no significant difference between azithromycin and doxycycline. Mycoplasma genitalium treatment failure was extremely common. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00358462

    Harmful Algal Blooms

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    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose threats to the environment, public health, and a variety of commercial interests and industries. A single bloom can lead to devastating outcomes, including large mortalities of marine organisms (e.g., fish kills); toxic contamination of filter-feeding organisms such as bivalve shellfish that subsequently enter the market for distribution to consumers; economic hardships for fisheries, aquaculture, and recreational- and tourism-related industries; and a compromised quality of life for people living or working along affected shorelines

    Cnidoscolus texanus (Native) 9

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    Cnidoscolus texanus, whole plant. Family Euphorbiaceae, Subclass Rosidae. Origin: Native

    Bigelowia nuttallii (Native)

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    Bigelowia nuttallii, whole plant. Family Asteraceae, Subclass Asteridae. Origin: Native

    Cirsium engelmannii (Native)

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    Cirsium engelmannii, head. Family Asteraceae, Subclass Asteridae. Origin: Native

    Aphelandra squarrosa (Cultivated) 2

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    Aphelandra squarrosa, inflorescence. Family Acanthaceae, Subclass Asteridae. Origin: Cultivated

    Heracleum lanatum (Native)

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    Heracleum lanatum, whole plant. Family Apiaceae, Subclass Rosidae. Origin: Native

    Sagittaria sp., pr. S. platyphylla (Native)

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    Sagittaria sp., pr. S. platyphylla, whole plant. Family Alismataceae, Subclass Alismatidae. Origin: Native

    Sarracenia alata (Native) 30

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    Sarracenia alata, fruit. Family Sarraceniaceae, Subclass Dilleniidae. Origin: Native
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