6,027 research outputs found

    Biooptical variability in the Greenland Sea observed with the Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS)

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    A site-specific ocean color remote sensing algorithm was developed and used to convert Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS) spectral radiance measurements to chlorophyll-a concentration profiles along aircraft tracklines in the Greenland Sea. The analysis is described and the results given in graphical or tabular form. Section 2 describes the salient characteristics and history of development of the MARS instrument. Section 3 describes the analyses of MARS flight segments over consolidated sea ice, resulting in a set of altitude dependent ratios used (over water) to estimate radiance reflected by the surface and atmosphere from total radiance measured. Section 4 presents optically weighted pigment concentrations calculated from profile data, and spectral reflectances measured in situ from the top meter of the water column; this data was analyzed to develop an algorithm relating chlorophyll-a concentrations to the ratio of radiance reflectances at 441 and 550 nm (with a selection of coefficients dependent upon whether significant gelvin presence is implied by a low ratio of reflectances at 410 and 550 nm). Section 5 describes the scaling adjustments which were derived to reconcile the MARS upwelled radiance ratios at 410:550 nm and 441:550 nm to in situ reflectance ratios measured simultaneously on the surface. Section 6 graphically presents the locations of MARS data tracklines and positions of the surface monitoring R/V. Section 7 presents stick-plots of MARS tracklines selected to illustrate two-dimensional spatial variability within the box covered by each day's flight. Section 8 presents curves of chlorophyll-a concentration profiles derived from MARS data along survey tracklines. Significant results are summarized in Section 1

    SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 5: Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation

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    Protocols are presented for measuring optical properties, and other environmental variables, to validate the radiometric performance of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and to develop and validate bio-optical algorithms for use with SeaWiFS data. The protocols are intended to establish foundations for a measurement strategy to verify the challenging SeaWiFS accuracy goals of 5 percent in water-leaving radiances and 35 percent in chlorophyll alpha concentration. The protocols first specify the variables which must be measured, and briefly review rationale. Subsequent chapters cover detailed protocols for instrument performance specifications, characterizing and calibration instruments, methods of making measurements in the field, and methods of data analysis. These protocols were developed at a workshop sponsored by the SeaWiFS Project Office (SPO) and held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California (9-12 April, 1991). This report is the proceedings of that workshop, as interpreted and expanded by the authors and reviewed by workshop participants and other members of the bio-optical research community. The protocols are a first prescription to approach unprecedented measurement accuracies implied by the SeaWiFS goals, and research and development are needed to improve the state-of-the-art in specific areas. The protocols should be periodically revised to reflect technical advances during the SeaWiFS Project cycle

    Volume 14: The first SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-1, July 1992

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    The results of the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-1), which was held at the Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS) at San Diego State University (SDSU) on 27-31 July 1992 are presetend. Oceanographic radiometers to be used in the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Program will be calibrated by individuals from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), CHORS, and seven other laboratories. The purpose of the SIRREX experiments is to assure the radiometric standards used in all of these laboratories are referenced to the same scales of spectral irradiance and radiance, which will be maintained by GSFC and periodically recalibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The spectral irradiance scale of GSFC's FEL lamp number F269 (recalibrated by NIST in October 1992) was transferred to lamps belonging to the 9 participating laboratories; l set of lamp transfer measurements (involving 4 of the lamps) was precise to within less than 1 percent and meets SeaWiFS goals, but a second set (involving another 14 lamps) did not. The spectral radiance scale of the GSFC 40-inch integrating sphere source was transferred to integrating sphere radiance sources belonging to four of the other laboratories. Reflectance plaques, used for irradiance-to-radiance transfer by five of the laboratories, were compared, but spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF's) were not determined quantitatively. Also reported are results of similar comparisons (in October 1992) between the GSFC scales of spectral irradiance and radiance and those used by the Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) to calibrate and characterize the SeaWiFS instrument. This first set of intercalibration round-robin experiments was a valuable learning experience for all participants, and led to several important procedural changes, which will be implemented in the second SIRREX, to be held at CHORS in June 1993

    Apollo Lightcraft Project

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    This second year of the NASA/USRA-sponsored Advanced Aeronautical Design effort focused on systems integration and analysis of the Apollo Lightcraft. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the shuttlecraft of the 21st century. The five person vehicle was inspired largely by the Apollo Command Module, then reconfigured to include a new front seat with dual cockpit controls for the pilot and co-pilot, while still retaining the 3-abreast crew accommodations in the rear seat. The gross liftoff mass is 5550 kg, of which 500 kg is the payload and 300 kg is the LH2 propellant. The round trip cost to orbit is projected to be three orders of magnitude lower than the current space shuttle orbiter. The advanced laser-driven 5-speed combined-cycle engine has shiftpoints at Mach 1, 5, 11 and 25+. The Apollo Lightcraft can climb into low Earth orbit in three minutes, or fly to any spot on the globe in less than 45 minutes. Detailed investigations of the Apollo Lightcraft Project this second year further evolved the propulsion system design, while focusing on the following areas: (1) man/machine interface; (2) flight control systems; (3) power beaming system architecture; (4) re-entry aerodynamics; (5) shroud structural dynamics; and (6) optimal trajectory analysis. The principal new findings are documented. Advanced design efforts for the next academic year (1988/1989) will center on a one meter+ diameter spacecraft: the Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). Detailed engineering design and analyses, as well as critical proof-of-concept experiments, will be carried out on this small, near-term machine. As presently conceived, the LTD could be constructed using state of the art components derived from existing liquid chemical rocket engine technology, advanced composite materials, and high power laser optics

    SeaWiFs Technical Report Series. Volume 34: The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19-30 September 1994

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    This report presents results of the third Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round- Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), which was held at the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS) on 19-30 September 1994. Spectral irradiances of FEL lamps belonging to each participant were intercompared by reference to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) scale of spectral irradiance using secondary standard lamps F268, F269, and F182, with a Type A uncertainty between 1.1-1.5%. This level of uncertainty was achieved despite difficulties with lamp F269. The average spectral irradiances of FEL lamps, compared in both SIRREX-2 and SIRREX-3, differed between the two experiments by 1.5%, which probably indicates that the values assigned to the secondary standard lamp at the time of SIRREX-2 were in error. With two exceptions, spectral radiance values of integrating sphere sources were measured during SIRREX-3 with uncertainties in temporal stability of less than 0.3% and absolute uncertainties of 1.5-2.0%. This is a significant improvement over similar intercomparisons in SIRREX- I and SIRREX-2. Plaque reflectances were intercompared with an uncertainty of about 1-2%, but the absolute uncertainty is undefined. Although this is an improvement over results of previous SIRREXS, the sources and magnitude of uncertainty associated with transfers of spectral radiance using plaques requires further evaluation in future experiments

    Survey of sediment quality in Sabine Lake, Texas and vicinity

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    The toxicity of sediments in Sabine Lake, Texas, and adjoining Intracoastal Waterway canals was determined as part of bioeffects assessment studies managed by NOAA’s National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine: (1) the incidence and degree of toxicity of sediments throughout the study area; (2) the spatial patterns (or gradients) in chemical contamination and toxicity, if any, throughout the study area; (3) the spatial extent of chemical contamination and toxicity; and (4) the statistical relationships between measures of toxicity and concentrations of chemicals in the sediments. Surficial sediment samples were collected during August, 1995 from 66 randomly-chosen locations. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed as indicators of potential ecotoxicological effects in sediments. A battery of tests was performed to generate information from different phases (components) of the sediments. Tests were selected to represent a range in toxicological endpoints from acute to chronic sublethal responses. Toxicological tests were conducted to measure: reduced survival of adult amphipods exposed to solid-phase sediments; impaired fertilization success and abnormal morphological development in gametes and embryos, respectively, of sea urchins exposed to pore waters; reduced metabolic activity of a marine bioluminescent bacteria exposed to organic solvent extracts; and induction of a cytochrome P-450 reporter gene system in exposures to solvent extracts of the sediments. Chemical analyses were performed on portions of each sample to quantify the concentrations of trace metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic compounds. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between measures of toxicity and concentrations of potentially toxic substances in the samples. Based upon the compilation of results from chemical analyses and toxicity tests, the quality of sediments in Sabine Lake and vicinity did not appear to be severely degraded. Chemical concentrations rarely exceeded effects-based numerical guidelines, suggesting that toxicant-induced effects would not be expected in most areas. None of the samples was highly toxic in acute amphipod survival tests and a minority (23%) of samples were highly toxic in sublethal urchin fertilization tests. Although toxic responses occurred frequently (94% of samples) in urchin embryo development tests performed with 100% pore waters, toxicity diminished markedly in tests done with diluted pore waters. Microbial bioluminescent activity was not reduced to a great degree (no EC50 <0.06 mg/ml) and cytochrome P-450 activity was not highly induced (6 samples exceeded 37.1 ug/g benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) in tests done with organic solvent extracts. Urchin embryological development was highly correlated with concentrations of ammonia and many trace metals. Cytochrome P450 induction was highly correlated with concentrations of a number of classes of organic compounds (including the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated compounds). (PDF contains 51 pages

    Design, Implementation and First Measurements with the Medipix Neutron Camera in CMS

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    The Medipix detector is the first device dedicated to measuring mixed-field radiation in the CMS cavern and able to distinguish between different particle types. Medipix2-MXR chips bump bonded to silicon sensors with various neutron conversion layers developed by the IEAP CTU in Prague were successfully installed for the 2008 LHC start-up in the CMS experimental and services caverns to measure the flux of various particle types, in particular neutrons. They have operated almost continuously during the 2010 run period, and the results shown here are from the proton run between the beginning of July and the end of October 2010. Clear signals are seen and different particle types have been observed during regular LHC luminosity running, and an agreement in the measured flux rate is found with the simulations. These initial results are promising, and indicate that these devices have the potential for further and future LHC and high energy physics applications as radiation monitoring devices for mixed field environments, including neutron flux monitoring. Further extensions are foreseen in the near future to increase the performance of the detector and its coverage for monitoring in CMS.Comment: 15 pages, 16 figures, submitted to JINS
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