272 research outputs found

    Sediment Transport Characteristics in a Storm-Sewer Line

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    Source: ICHE Conference Archive - https://mdi-de.baw.de/icheArchiv

    Trick or Heat? Manipulating Critical Temperature-Based Control Systems Using Rectification Attacks

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    Temperature sensing and control systems are widely used in the closed-loop control of critical processes such as maintaining the thermal stability of patients, or in alarm systems for detecting temperature-related hazards. However, the security of these systems has yet to be completely explored, leaving potential attack surfaces that can be exploited to take control over critical systems. In this paper we investigate the reliability of temperature-based control systems from a security and safety perspective. We show how unexpected consequences and safety risks can be induced by physical-level attacks on analog temperature sensing components. For instance, we demonstrate that an adversary could remotely manipulate the temperature sensor measurements of an infant incubator to cause potential safety issues, without tampering with the victim system or triggering automatic temperature alarms. This attack exploits the unintended rectification effect that can be induced in operational and instrumentation amplifiers to control the sensor output, tricking the internal control loop of the victim system to heat up or cool down. Furthermore, we show how the exploit of this hardware-level vulnerability could affect different classes of analog sensors that share similar signal conditioning processes. Our experimental results indicate that conventional defenses commonly deployed in these systems are not sufficient to mitigate the threat, so we propose a prototype design of a low-cost anomaly detector for critical applications to ensure the integrity of temperature sensor signals.Comment: Accepted at the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), 201

    Identifying novel genetic variants for brain amyloid deposition: a genome-wide association study in the Korean population

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    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most GWAS were conducted in individuals of European ancestry, and non-European populations are still underrepresented in genetic discovery efforts. Here, we performed GWAS to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with amyloid β (Aβ) positivity using a large sample of Korean population. Methods: One thousand four hundred seventy-four participants of Korean ancestry were recruited from multicenters in South Korea. Discovery dataset consisted of 1190 participants (383 with cognitively unimpaired [CU], 330 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and 477 with AD dementia [ADD]) and replication dataset consisted of 284 participants (46 with CU, 167 with aMCI, and 71 with ADD). GWAS was conducted to identify SNPs associated with Aβ positivity (measured by amyloid positron emission tomography). Aβ prediction models were developed using the identified SNPs. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis was conducted for the identified SNPs. Results: In addition to APOE, we identified nine SNPs on chromosome 7, which were associated with a decreased risk of Aβ positivity at a genome-wide suggestive level. Of these nine SNPs, four novel SNPs (rs73375428, rs2903923, rs3828947, and rs11983537) were associated with a decreased risk of Aβ positivity (p < 0.05) in the replication dataset. In a meta-analysis, two SNPs (rs7337542 and rs2903923) reached a genome-wide significant level (p < 5.0 × 10-8). Prediction performance for Aβ positivity increased when rs73375428 were incorporated (area under curve = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.74-0.76) in addition to clinical factors and APOE genotype. Cis-eQTL analysis demonstrated that the rs73375428 was associated with decreased expression levels of FGL2 in the brain. Conclusion: The novel genetic variants associated with FGL2 decreased risk of Aβ positivity in the Korean population. This finding may provide a candidate therapeutic target for AD, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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